Monday, September 30, 2019
German CostumerÃ¢â¬â¢s Buying Habits Online According to figures released by the German Association for Consumer Research (GfK), 34. 1 million German consumers buy merchandise or services on the Internet (2010). Among the most popular purchases are books, clothes, travel and concert tickets, and cars. Unlike in other European countries where there is a reluctance toward online shopping by seniors, almost half of Germans between the age of 50 and 69 buy merchandise on the Internet. Decision Making The Internet also plays a major role when it comes to decision-making among German consumers.Before buying merchandise or services,, they usually consult the web for information and to compare prices. The cheapest bidder is not always the winner; tidiness, easy-return options, sustainability and quality of the product are more important in the decision-making than the price. International Shopping German consumers do not necessarily choose German products. The most popular online vendors i n Germany are eBay and Amazon, with their international communities. Food and wine, consumer electronics, and even cars are among the most popular imported article. Corporate Social Responsibility 4% of consumers want to see more ethical behavior. And they hold both the government and brands accountable to deliver; up 34% compared to 2007 for government and up 23% compared to 2007 for corporations. Small correlates to responsible in our respondents minds. 68% said small businesses act more responsible. By stark comparison only 16% thought big business could be responsible, irrespective of sector or origin. National pride and Ã¢â¬ËMade in GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢ continue to gain relevance in the area of CSR. 52% of consumers believe national brands are more responsible, with the exception of the financial services.This is evident by their choice of the Top 5 most responsible brands (all German): Landliebe, DM, Bosch, Audi and Tchibo. By comparison, 37% believe European brands act responsib ly, 18% for UK brands, 11% for USA brands, and only 7% for brands from Asia. Companies and brands are an integral part of German society. And as such, society looks up to them to find the solutions. 47% of Germans see this as a critical factor for their brand choice (up from 43% in 2007) As we have stated before, strong brands that engage in CSR initiatives that dovetail with their offerings are better positioned to reap the rewards. And the research backs it up.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Compare how Capote and Shelley use different techniques for characterisation and their use of emotive, figurative language with the use of repition to show the theme of wasted lives Ã¢â¬ËIn Cold BloodÃ¢â¬â¢ was written in 1966 when screenplays were very common. Authors such as Shakespeare wrote traditional plays so it was unpredictable that the readers of Ã¢â¬ËIn Cold BloodÃ¢â¬â¢ would respond to the novel well as it was the first non fiction novel Capote wrote. Capote wanted to experiment with his writing using narrative techniques of the novel to depict real life events. Capote believed that the narrator should not interrupt in novels; but the characters should tell the story themselves. Capote was able to write a novel which displayed the real events surrounding the murder of the Herb Clutter family and shaped it into a storyline. Ã¢â¬ËIn Cold BloodÃ¢â¬â¢ is based on a true story of the murders of a family- something which would be wrote about in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The novel is an account of the events but also contains elements of CapoteÃ¢â¬â¢s creativity therefore it is hard to tell whether it is fictional or factual. Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢ on the other hand is a non fictional novel which is still read and appreciated today as it is of a gothic genre. Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢ was written in 1818 when science was seen as exciting but also dangerous as it was trespassing on the territory of God. The early 19th century was a time which generated exceptional events and ideas therefore it must have been quite interesting to read Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢. The danger of science was a great classic theme and Shelley provided her gothic genre as a framework to tone the horror of failed science- the famous experiment gone wrong. Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢ is still a very popular novel today because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s fascination in science which is still explored. Capote portrays his character Bonnie as being a very timid and shy character. She has a Ã¢â¬Ëheart faced shapeÃ¢â¬â¢ which is symbolic to her personality and it suggests that she is a likeable character. The significance of this is that it makes the readers engage with her and they want to know her story in order to feel sympathy for her. Bonnie has Ã¢â¬Ëbony handsÃ¢â¬â¢ and is quite petitie which suggests that she is quite vunerable- like the creature in Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢. In Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢, we get the creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, Ã¢â¬Ëand what was I? Ã¢â¬Ë this is similar to CapoteÃ¢â¬â¢s character Bonnie with both the characters looking for reassurance from someone. Both the writers make it easy for the reader to discover new aspects of the characters personalities. Capote uses emotive language in repition to suggest that Bonnie may have had a wasted life which makes the readers have sympathy for her. Capote uses the term Ã¢â¬Ëspinster auntÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a type of semantic change known for an unmarried woman. Even though the novel was written in 1966, the language is still easily read and understood. Unlike Ã¢â¬ËIn Cold BloodÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËFrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢ contains language which may cause a barrier if read today. Shelley uses words like Ã¢â¬ËloathsomeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsqualidÃ¢â¬â¢ which would rarely be used today however the novel is still effective at portraying the gothic horror through emotive and figurative language. In the extract of the dialogue between Jolene and Bonnie, Capote portrays the significance of the difference between Bonnie and Jolene. Jolene is a very confident character whereas Bonnie constantly panicks and stutters when she speaks; this shows that she may feel worthless and may feel that she is not noticed by others. Capote emphasizes BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s wasted life indirectly by comparing her to JoleneÃ¢â¬â¢s character who comes across as very confident. The comparison of the two characters is quite significant as it shows the importance of emotion that Bonnie has felt. Capote brings a child like quality to Bonnie through the dialogue between Bonnie and Jolene, Ã¢â¬ËThey donÃ¢â¬â¢t need me,Ã¢â¬â¢ this shows that Bonnie may be looking for reassurance from Jolene. Capote makes the reader feel sorry for Bonnie in order to like her character as she may have had a bad past. The repition of Ã¢â¬Ëthey donÃ¢â¬â¢t need meÃ¢â¬â¢ reinforces the sadness of Bonnie. It is also suggesting how she may not be very close to her family. Capote makes us aware of the sadness and timidness of Bonnie for the readers to sympathise with her and hope that she succeeds later in the novel. The insecurities that Capote brings out in his character can resemble the characters of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s famous novels. Shelley makes the readers realise that even though the creature is deformed, he is still a character who underneath his flaws should be treated the same as any other person. Ã¢â¬ËI was not even of the same nature as manÃ¢â¬â¢, this shows that Shelley wants the readers to sympathise with the creature and almost feel his emotion. The creatureÃ¢â¬â¢s life is empty if not more than Bonnies as all he longs for is companionship. Shelley makes the readers feel quite sad for the creature as he is deprived of love. With the use of figurative and emotive language, Ã¢â¬ËI saw and heard of none like meÃ¢â¬â¢, Shelley introduces feelings to the reader which can only be seen as human. The readers see that the creature is still an outcast even though he has tried helping people and tried being humane. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s unfortunate for the creature to have an empty life, one which he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really ask for and like the one Bonnie almost wished she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Point of Presence Advertising - Essay Example The author planned to purchase a movie named Lord of the Rings - Fellowship of the Ring on recommendation of a friend and came across a pack of all the three movies of Lord of the Ring series at a price that was 20% less than the overall cost had the movies been purchased separately. The author realized that he anyway had to purchase the other two movies to complete the story and was delighted to get all the three of them at 20% discount. In the second purchase instance, the author was delighted to realize the value of the package as he owns both a Sony digital camera and Handy Cam. The total price was cheaper by 15%. Such product promotion advertisements resulted in positive impact on the author because the overall value of the buying decisions improved although the author didn't had planned for part of the purchase. The effectiveness of these two "Point-of-Sale" advertisements resulted in win-win deal for both the store and the author - the store increased the net sale value and th e author got more useful products at lesser cost. The author was not at all annoyed but was happy with the sales girl for introducing these offers. Massy and Frank (1966. pp383) presented the findings of an exploratory study on behavior of retailer advertising thus establishing some interesting empirical generalizations. They could prove that the brands sell differently in different stores and the support to a brand depends upon the brand's market share in a particular store type. The author discovered a linkage of this theory with the research by Kumar and Leone (1988. pp178-179) which stated that many customer packaged good manufacturers have resorted to funding short term sales promotion at the store level which primarily has two distinct advantages - the effectiveness of promotions can result in on the spot sales activity and the store management takes pride into participating in on the spot campaigns given increased margins & commissions. Both the manufacturer and the store management gain in this process - the former achieves brand promotion & quick sales and the latter achieves improved profitability of the store. Howeve r the store management normally achieves short term benefits but the manufacturers achieve long term benefits by achieving strong customer franchise through brand substitution. From the author's perspective one good observation about this model is that the on the spot promotional activities sometimes are effective enough to modify the purchase plan by the customers that they had made before visiting the store. Bucklin and Lattin (1991. pp24) observed that "point-of-purchase promotion is particularly attractive given the large pro-portion of grocery purchase decisions made after entering the store". They further observed that "two-thirds of supermarket purchases are the result of an in-store decision". Culturally speaking, such campaigns has promoted a culture of "fun buying" even avail such promotions to just find out what's hot on the day and carry out on the spot purchase decisions. Many a times, customers just get impressed by the sales skills of the sales person and do not bothe r what brand they are buying. Hence the
Friday, September 27, 2019
Evaluation of the website for ESOL program - Essay Example The website could be regarded as one of the few websites that are easy to maneuver particularly when accessing any kind of information required. Firstly, the website has eight main areas (segments) that have been incorporated with the most crucial information. Although it does not have the Frequent Asked Questions (FAQs) that is mostly found in university websites, people who visit the website for the first time could easily decide if they can use the program by simply going through the main literature. Secondly, in case interested persons are not fully satisfied with information that is currently present or they need more clarification, the website has provided contact information of various emails where more information is found. Notably, the overall appearance of the website is very attractive. Basically, the main colors (shade of blue and white) blend well with the main purpose of the website. In fact, it uses a simple theme to capture the attention of students /learners and other interested persons. Additionally, the graphics used to accompany the literature give emphases to the main concept of the website. In fact, the graphics gives the reader the chance to imaginably connect with most of the sceneries that are present in the website such as the three campuses, news and events connected to the university among others. It is for undoubted reasons that the website is an example of utilized diversity in most areas. In regard to the ESOL the university has confirmed that it is capable of offering learning opportunities to student speaking in 30 languages and from 30 countries. Simply put, the university embraces diverse culture which upholds dignity of human beings across the world. At the same, it serves as a marketing tool for the ESOL program and the university as a whole since not many universities embrace such wide culture
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Short Story Criticism Argument Paper - Essay Example But in ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s age such an attempt of a woman to seek for freedom which seems to be insulting to the male-dominated society usually ends in smoke like Louise, as Wang says in the following sentence, Ã¢â¬Å"By the death of Louise at the end of the story, Chopin clearly implies that any womanÃ¢â¬â¢s search for ideal feminine selfhood is impossible in an age dominated by patriarchsÃ¢â¬ (Wang 107). Indeed the textual evidences that Wang puts forth are not strong enough to prove his proposition as a fact. In this paper, I will prove that WangÃ¢â¬â¢s claim about ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s motif in the story is partially right and partially wrong. It is true that Kate Chopin explores Ã¢â¬Å"feminine selfhood in a patriarchal societyÃ¢â¬ but not through Ã¢â¬Å"the heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual journey to freedomÃ¢â¬ . Again, unlike WangÃ¢â¬â¢s proposition, ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s heroine does not show any sign of attempt to search for her feminine selfhood. What Wang says in support of his c laim about Ã¢â¬Å"the heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual journey to freedomÃ¢â¬ is the textual reference to LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the possibility of freedom at the possible death of her husband. LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s one-hour reaction to the possible freedom does not involve any struggle that could provoke the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness of her imprisonment in the male dominated society. Therefore, WangÃ¢â¬â¢s phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"the heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual journey to freedomÃ¢â¬ , is quite meaningless in the sense that ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist does not make a journey to freedom. Indeed freedom once comes to her unexpectedly. Again, since Louise is ignorant of what imprisons her in a male dominated society, she can see only the minimal aspect of freedom. For ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, freedom means to live for herself, not for others, to live on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own will, as the narrator of the story tells LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s feeling for the oncoming freedom: Ã¢â¬Å"There would be no o ne to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creatureÃ¢â¬ (Chopin 89). Such perception of freedom rather reveals the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s immaturity and failure to perceive the greater responsibility that freedom imposes upon the one who enjoys it. When Ã¢â¬Ëto live for othersÃ¢â¬â¢ is supposed to be oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty oneÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom Ã¢â¬Å"to avoid itÃ¢â¬ should be considered as anarchy. LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of freedom is ultimately flawed, because she seeks freedom from her responsibilities for others and because she does not seek freedom to be responsible. However, Louise herself is not responsible for such flawed perception of freedom; rather she is a mere production of the patriarchy that shapes her psychological development in such way. Unlike WangÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Louis e makes a journey to freedom at the prospect of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, she remains far away from freedom in its true sense. Apart from this wrong interpretation, Wang righteously asserts that ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist begins to form her selfhood hearing the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Though Wang claims that Louise searches for Ã¢â¬Å"ideal feminine selfhoodÃ¢â¬ (Wang 108), ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of LouiseÃ¢â¬â¢s nascent self is purely asexual, not a feminine selfhood. A man also can possess the self that Louise starts to form after hearing the death-news. It is the self (the asexual one) that defies any bondage and repression in any form and that always resists the suppressive power. Louise
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Tell me, what is sociology, anyway Why bother to study it (Please be convincing in your answer) - Essay Example Systematic methods of empirical observation/data and critical analysis are used to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity, in order to apply this knowledge for the study of social processes and human behavior. Sociology is non-ethical because it deals with the study of events as they are, and not what they should be. The scientist has no technique by which he can determine what the ultimate values of a society should be. The knowledge attained by him is instrumental. Fundamental assumptions are involved in all the investigations of knowledge, which are accepted without testing. The assumptions or pre-suppositions of science are given in the following: 1. There is an object world quite different from the subject world. 2. The truth of the object world can be explored by an unbiased investigation by man and by employing what is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"scientific method. Mechanics of Sociology: A) Scientific Rationality Scientific Rationality is identified in Sociology and science addresses the modern world, comprehends through logical thought and reasoning, creates suppositions, and verifies them through means of experimentation and scientific method.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Comparing the way that Karl Marx and Max Weber perceive social classes - Term Paper Example Marx famously reduced historical development to a function of economics, depicted as a struggle between the proletariat or working classes and the bourgeoisie as owners of the means of production. In contrasting modern capitalist societies with feudal systems, Marx taught a historical dynamic of evolution of culture through the political economics of inequality he viewed as a repeating cycle in cultures. Marx tended to view artistic, cultural, and religious sentiment as expressed by societies and individuals as also strictly determinant terms and reflective of the political economy. That this critique was influential in WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s time is shown through workersÃ¢â¬â¢ organizations, labor movements and student radicalism as experienced across all of Germany and most of Europe following the publication of MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s political economics and call to communist / socialist revolution. However, historical conflict exists between Marx, Engels, and the Social Democratic Party in Germany with regard to what the founders viewed as the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s adoption of views and policies that compromised the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s movement and revolutionary struggle while appealing to its force. It is in these ideological reforms of Marxism that were introduced by the SDP in Germany historically, creating a more mainstream Socialism that could be integrated into the western democratic political system without workerÃ¢â¬â¢s revolution, that it is necessary to view the differences between Karl Marx and Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s theories of class. Ã¢â¬Å"There can be no doubt whatever that what interests all internationalists most is the state of affairs among the German Social-Democratic opposition. Official German Social-Democracy, which was the strongest and the leading party in the Second International, struck the heaviest blow at the international workersÃ¢â¬â¢ organisation. But at the same time, it was in German Social-Democracy that the strongest opposition was found... The split in the present-day
Monday, September 23, 2019
Trying to Downsize Try Downsizing - Essay Example The author quotes Lola O'Rourke, spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association, as saying, "If people could simply reduce their portions by a third, they would cut out a huge amount of calories". The author cites a study that was reported in Obesity and Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. The study found that dieters who used pre-packaged managed portions lost significantly more weight than a group that were allowed to choose their own portions. Being able to select the proper amount of food to consume is the first key to successful dieting. The author suggests that we simply become more aware of the serving size. She contends that the size of bagels, cheeseburgers, and soft drinks have grown dramatically in recent years and has resulted in calories that have more than doubled. In the midst of this super-sized climate it's important that the dieter be able to select the correct amount. Doheny suggests splitting a meal with a partner or simply ordering a smaller portion. Of course, there is always the doggy bag to take home food that is in excess of your dieting needs. The author also suggests we weigh our food at home when we prepare it. In the event that weighing is not possible she offers several tips on visualizing the correct portions.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Woman in Yoruba - Research Paper Example This art included the use of wood, clay, stone, ivory, bronze, copper, and brass as material for these visual art works. Provenance in African arts is often hard to prove. This is the same case in Yoruba art where the artist is not clearly identified as the author of that art work. Concepts of authenticity in African art is different by virtue of the African concept of ownership; the owner of that art work is the person who ordered or commissioned an art work and not the artist himself. This is further compounded by the fairly recent commodification of African art (Stokes, 1999: 10). Many art objects were sold and re-sold to different private individuals and museums as result. It is not surprising that quite often, real authorship is lost and very hard to trace indeed. Hints in public knowledge of the real author of an art work may impinge on the owner in terms of prestige, power, and success in the public persona arena (ibid.). This is why most of Yoruba art hardly reflects on the real authorship but rather emphasizes the ownership of it. One aspect of Yoruba art that is very prominent is the use of art works in religious worship. A number of Yoruba art works reflect the ritualistic traditions among the people and an art work shown as an example here is good symbolism of the central role of religion (see Fig. 1). Women in Yoruba society occupy an important role. Although most scholarly literature points to a male-dominated society, this is not the case as validated by their works of art. The women in Yoruba have acquired divine authority as shown in the arts (Abiodun, 1989:2). It is a significant deviation from the common misconceptions of male dominance. The women as depicted in Yoruba art are almost always calm, dignified, and possessed of divine powers. In Yoruba art, women are accorded as powerful but also as subordinates (Olajubu, 2003:105). The essence of most Yoruba art is to
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Upsides to Social Networking Essay Within recent years, internet users have taken to social networking for their various personal needs. Social networks have become much more prominent in our increasingly technological world and the number of users using them are increasing. In Karen Goldberg GoffÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Social Networking Benefits Validated,Ã¢â¬ she argues that Social Networking has various benefits for its users that will be essential throughout life. While social networks may show signs of danger to some people, the benefits do outweigh the potential dangers. Not only do social networks provide an online community, they provide users with many benefits and skills they may then use in their lives. Social networks provide great opportunities for socialization. As Monica Villa, founder of theonlinemom.com says, social networking Ã¢â¬Å"is allowing a lot of dialogue among people who may not otherwise have a chance for a lot of dialogueÃ¢â¬ (Goff). For those who want to be able to communicate with others, social networking is there to help them combat their shyness or there social isolationism by allowing them to connect with other people they can talk to. For those with disabilities, social networking is a useful means of communication to put their Ã¢â¬Å"personality at the forefrontÃ¢â¬ while lessening the focus on the actual disability so that only the words, not the disability, are seen (Holmquist). In a report by the nonprofit child advocacy group Common Sense Media, Ã¢â¬Å"one in five teens said social media makes them feel more confidentÃ¢â¬ (Wallace). It was also reported that more than twenty nine percent of teens report that social networking makes them less shy while twenty eight percent reported feeling more outgoing as a result of communicating through social networks. Twenty percent of the teens reported feeling more confident through social networking (fifty three percent of teens identified themselves as somewhat shy or really shy in general). Not all youths happen to be socially adept and social network provide them with a great virtual place to make friends, speak to friends, and be as vocal as they truly want to be (Social Networking). As for the socialization with friends already made, over half of the teens (fifty two percent) in the report from Common Sense Media said social networking made their relationships better as opposed to the four percent who said thatÃ social networking has negatively affected their relationships (Wallace). With social networks, users can extend friendships and meet others with similar interests. Lisa Tripp, an assistant professor at Florida State University, says that Ã¢â¬Å"technology, including YouTube, iPods and podcasting, creates avenues for extending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s circle of friends, boosts self-directed learning and fosters independenceÃ¢â¬ (Goff). While many people go on social networking sites to talk to friends they may already know, these sites can also be used to find like-minded people with similar hobbies and interests (Goff). Teens can use social networking to expand their social circle and meet people who they would enjoy speaking too. Before social networking was available to communicate with people across the world, a fan of a certain character or film or even an idea might find himself isolated if there was not a person with the similar interest. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world with social networking being so popular, the once isolated kid can now find himself speaking to m any other people just like him and may come to know that he can go out and seek peers to talk to (Goff). In the study by Common Sense Media, sixty nine percent of the teens said that they were able to know the students at their school better through social networking sites and fifty seven percent of the teens reported that they used social networking sites to make new friends (Social Networking). With the interactions with other people, users using social networks can build up their self-confidence as they share pictures and statuses about themselves and in return receiving positive feedback from their peers (Wallace). A way that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s social network can be especially useful in the long run is when finding a job. Deborah Leuchovious, coordinator of PACERÃ¢â¬â¢s TATRA Project has stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Drawing on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal networks is one of the most effective strategies for finding employment (Holmquist). Through social networking, various helpful skills can be learned and practiced. The researchers from the Digital Youth Project, conducted at the University of Southern California and the University of California at Berkeley, found that Ã¢â¬Å"the constant communication that social networking provides is encouraging useful skillsÃ¢â¬ (Goff). The study looked at thousands of hours of online observation and concluded that new opportunities areÃ created, as a result of social networking, for young people to deal with social norms, explore interests, work on ways to express themselves, and develop technical skills (Goff). For adolescents using social networking, they can develop skills needed to become independent, working adults in society as they will make a lot of decisions for themselves while online (Holmquist). The majority of skills learned online would be social skills. These skills give teens the ability to start thinking before they say things and to think about who they are while becoming more independent so that they can form their own personal identity (Holmquist). Other important skills learned would be technological skills that will be Ã¢â¬Å"essential to the digital economy,Ã¢â¬ as Monica Villa has stated (Goff). Not only will the technological skills be useful when communicating, they will also be of use when making the transition from high school to college and when making the transition of being an adolescent to being a competent citizen. By using social networking websites, one may have a place to go to for help when dealing with lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s problems. Although the place will be a virtual social network, there will still be a greater number of people who will actually show sympathy and provide help or guidance. Not all people will want to speak of personal problems verbally and social network provide a place to seek encouragement from fellow peers. An example of a situation where social networking helped to save a life happened recently when an eighteen year old posted on his Facebook page that he was thinking about jumping off the George Washington Bridge, which connects New York and New Jersey. After seeing his post, Port Authority officers contacted him and encouraged him to not go through with what he wanted to do and to go receive help (Wallace). Social networking can also have positive effects on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s health. By providing an individual with a large social group, that individual will have an Ã¢â¬Å"impr oved life satisfaction, stroke recovery, memory retention, and an overall well-beingÃ¢â¬ (Social Networking). The friends that one has on a social network also may serve as encouragement when dealing with health related issues such as exercise, dieting, and smoking (Social Networking). There are opportunities to learn about events and even personal interestsÃ through social networking. For teens, social networking sites are second only to newspapers for their top news source and are able to spread information faster than any other source of media (Social Networking). Over fifty percent of the people in the study by Common Sense Media reported that they learned about breaking news from social media (Social Networking). Social networking even plays a large role in politics. Over a quarter of US voters that were younger than thirty reported to have obtained information about the 2008 Presidential campaign from social media (Social Networking). Aside from just learning about events, people can learn about how they can be involved in the world around them. By becoming aware of the world around them, adolescents will also learn about how they may also become involved and what they can do for social good. Social media sites can empower individuals to create meaningful, positive change (Wallace). Groups like Grow Global Citizens use social networks to increase teensÃ¢â¬â¢ awareness of the world around them and to allow them to become more Ã¢â¬Å"innovative about how they can get involvedÃ¢â¬ (Wallace). Social media strategist, Elena Sonnino has stated that now teens can do much more in regards to their involvement aside from things like book drives and canned food drives (Wallace). When speaking of social networking, more concerns rather than benefits are mentioned. Since the benefits are not as mentioned as the possible dangers, people tend to believe that social networking may have harmful effects but this is not true. Most of what is told by news outlets is the negatives of social networking, such as how cyberbullying can turn tragic (Wallace). News outlets focus on the negatives without taking into account that Ã¢â¬Å"for every heartbreaking case of cyberbullying, there are many stories of teens using social media for goodÃ¢â¬ (Wallace). Other negatives mentioned about social networking is that it causes teens to be lazy and that what they do online may not be safe. Mizuko Ito, from the Digital Youth Project, has stated that spending time online is essential for young people to acquire social and technical skills that are needed to be competent citizens in the digital age (Goff). Even though there may be risks that may be encountered online by some peopl e, youth who engage in risky behaviors in other parts of their lives are the most at risk (Holmquist). Parents may also become involved with their kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ social network. They can view theirÃ page at any time and even have their password to see what their kid is doing (Goff). To lessen the dangers of social networking even more, users also have the option to change their privacy settings so that certain details are hidden to others and even so that only people they know may contact them. The benefits of social networking have shown themselves to be useful and helpful in the increasing digital world. Not only do users gain skills of socialization, they also learn more about themselves and the world around them. Social networks are a great place to seek friends with similar interests, news, and also help. Although there may be possible dangers with social networking, they may be taken care of and do not seem great enough compared to the upsides of social networking. The benefits that social networks bring will become useful for other aspects of life. Social networking has achieved a way for users to not only gain essential benefits and skills in their everyday lives, but also throughout their lives. Works Cited Goff, Karen Goldberg. Social Networking Benefits Validated. Washington Times. The Washington Times, 28 Jan. 2009. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. Holmquist, Julie. Social Networking Sites: Consider the Benefits, Concerns for Your Teenager. Impact Newsletter. Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota, Fall 2009. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. Social Networking. ProCon. ProCon.org, 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. Wallace, Kelly. The Upside of Selfies: Social Media Isnt All Bad for Kids. CNN. Cable News Network, 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2014.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Role of Inflation and Change in Consumer Buying Power 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Our cram will be paying attention at the diverse aspects of inflation in Pakistan from a local and large-scale point of view. Pakistan has undergone a most important economic growth all the way through previous few years. But the core evils of the economy are at rest unsettled; Inflation remains the most important of all these evils. In the case of an Asian country, Pakistan inflation is the end result of monetary phenomena. The excess money supply increase in Pakistan has in essence improved inflation. Inflation is a get higher in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level grows; each unit of currency buys less goods or services. Inflation doesnt on its own pressure the macroeconomic indicators; it influences the living standards of the nation. As the percentage of inflation enhance, the cost of all commodities also enhance. It can also be described as a turn down in the real value of moneyÃ¢â¬âa thrashing o f purchasing power. The level of inflation in Pakistan has been bit by bit getting higher since partition. The high levels of inflation imitate an unstable economy in which money does not hold its value for long. Workers have need of higher remuneration to cover up getting higher costs, and are disinclined to save. Manufacturer in turn may move up their selling prices to cover up these increases, scale back production to check their costs (resulting in lay-offs), or be unsuccessful to invest in future production. Many such problems have been, and still are, being faced by Pakistan. The issues leading to high levels of inflation include deficit financing, foreign remittances, foreign economic support, increase in wages, population explosion, black money, prices of imported goods, devaluation of rupee, etc. 1.2 Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study is to be familiar with and learn about global real meaning of role of inflation and its impact on Pakistan economy and more paying attention towards inflation affect on different sector. In this study, we studied about the factors causing inflation. It will be of great help out to students of economics and business studies. The study provides as much as necessary learning opportunities that one for all time looks for and such opportunities turn very healthy in terms with understanding the subject which is under study. 1.3 Research Objectives Present the set-up of inflation in Pakistan. Underline the figures of recent years. Impact of inflation on our society. Cram the procedures that have been taken by government to supervise inflation. Evaluate policies of the State Bank of Pakistan and the tools it is using to supervise inflation. Give recommendations to control inflation. 1.4 Research Methodology: In this research, we contain data from primary and secondary sources. Data used in this study are obtained from KSE 100, State bank of Pakistan, federal bureau of statistic; stock price index etcÃ¢â¬ ¦The information required for our research consists of details about recent and past policies of State Bank of Pakistan. Research instruments for this study included, interviews from economists, columnists and other relevant people. The sources of information or data on the Inflation collected all the way through variety of ways in different setting. It also contains very well points about other variables affecting inflation. For this, we aim to gather secondary data, all the way through websites, economic surveys and the journals. However, if required, we can also make use of primary data in the forms of interviews and surveys. Analysis of data would be done by with awareness studying the collected data. A to the point explanation of the format of the results will be presented in the f ollowing forms, e.g. Pie charts Line graphs Tables Study Period/Division of Time for Project The possible limitations in our research would be; Time constraint Knowledge constraint Data constraint CHAPTER # 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW Inflation means get higher of general level of price of goods and services in the economy over the period of time. Inflation occurs when the demand of goods will be getting higher as compare to the supply of that good. If the supply is not equilibrium (or less) to the demand of goods and services so the prices will be high. Inflation will also occur when the cost of production will rice or increase price on raw material so the manufacturer increase the finished good prices. Inflation impact negative effect on economy for the reason that it decrease the real value of money. Consumer buying power means how the people spend money on goods and services or purchase the product on a specific availability of money or wages. There are two factors that affect the consumer buying power. (1).Every person wants to spend money for his basic needs or for his luxuries and entertainment for example: (food, house, car, clothing, entertainment etc.). But the buying power will change every year for the reason that of inflation. It will be happened for the reason that of the product price will increase every year or you can say that decrease the value of money. (2).Consumer buying power will also be change for the reason that of monthly wages. If monthly wages is increase or the product or commodities price is same then consumer go for in addition activity but if the wages is not increase only increase the product or commodities price so the effect is occur on consumer buying power. They are only going for basic needs not for the luxuries etc. ALEEM, KALIM (2007) Inflation is get higher in Pakistan for the reason that of mismanagement and loose control on monetary policy and fiscal policy. In monetary policy state bank will issue the supply of money or if supply of money is not manage by state bank efficiently so its affect on inflation or in fiscal policy government apply the taxes on private sector. In 2005-06 inflation will be get higher and fall for the reason that of loose monetary policy. Now in Pakistan recent government apply expansionary policy. In this policy government will increase the interest rate to control the inflation or consumer buying power. Getting higher oil prices in the market will also increase the price on food items or commodities. Inflation in Pakistan wills also occur for the reason that of sharp increase in net import. The gab between in domestic demand and domestic production is filled import items. Comparison between import and export in Pakistan there is no balance of trade or balance of payment. Getting higher trade deficit can be a cause of expectation of high inflation. ABDUL (2007)this author tells us that monetary policy are playing very important role for increasing inflation or how to control inflation. Monetary policy successfully controls inflation when it successfully controls money supply in the market. Monetary policy calculates the money supply with the help of M2 (cash and checking account deposit + saving deposit and money market accounts). But state bank of Pakistan is failed to have power over money supply last few years that why inflation is get higher in Pakistan. But now in Pakistan state bank will increase the interest rate to have power over the inflation in Pakistan. Increasing the amount in interest rate will affect demand for credit to the business sector and also affect the money market rate. Increasing the amount in interest rate also affect the demand on commodities. FAROOQ (2008)this author tells us that political instability is effect the inflation. Monetary policy will be effect for the reason that of political instability. If the political sector is stable in Pakistan so inflation will may be have power over for the reason that state bank will do supply of money in the market by the manage way. Political instability is a negative effect for the economy for the reason that of variable GDP growth, private investment and inflation. Political stability is very important for the economic development of a country. Political stability discourages speculation and hoarding and encourages investment. If there is an unexpected twist in the political situation of a country become entrepreneurs reluctant to invest. Just as foreign investors do not invest, at the same time as industrialists and businessmen feel uncertain and can not make good plans. Due to the scarcity of goods and services are produced and cause inflation MOHSIN (2006) After forecast that is why inflation is go up in Pakistan we check up that for the reason that of variable monetary policy means variable money supply in the market or given high credit to private sector not only this also charge the variable interest rates. Every time state bank (central bank) was not made a good monetary policy as well as they didnt manage the supply of money in the market. When ever the state bank drop off the interest rate so private sector will borrow the loan from the bank or in this case private sector credit will be increase or supply of money will also increase in cooperation growths are good leading indicators of inflation. Inflation will be control by using these four ways which are under below. Get higher in the interest rates is a very useful tool for restricting monetary inflation. Increase in the real rates of interest decreases the demand for loans, thereby limiting the growth of broad money. There may also be a fall in the commercial investments, due to a get higher in the costs of borrowing money. This exerts a direct influence on a handful of planned investment-related projects, which turn out to be unprofitable. This leads to a fall in the collective demand. An increase in the payment of mortgage interests automatically decreases the real effective disposable income of the house owners, as well as their spending capacities. Escalation in the mortgage costs also decreases the demand generated in the housing markets. ABDUL QAYYUM (2006) this author tells us the relation between excess money supply growth and inflation. Excess money supply will be happened for the reason that of loose monetary policy which is making by the government or state bank of Pakistan. Money supply growth will effect on the inflation. First supply growth will affect on gross domestic product (GDP). It will happened for the reason that when the consumer buying power will increase so demand will also increase or if supply is less than with demand so prices of commodities will be get higher and fall. So government or state bank makes the affective monetary policy then the inflation will be under have power over. Growth of population is also increase the inflation in the country for the reason that of increase in demand of goods and services or if demand of goods is greater than the supply as a result the prices will be increase in the GDP commodities. Due to the imbalance between supply and demand of goods and services, prices start to get higher and triggering inflation. JIAN ZHANGThe consumer buying power will depends upon the prices of goods and services. If the prices of goods and services are not high so consumer purchasing power will increase. Buying power will also depend on supply of money means (monetary policy). If supply of money in the country is high so consumer buying power will also increase. Buying power will also depends on wages. If the consumer wages is not increase only increase the price on commodities so buying power will be get higher and fall or decrease. If the wages is increase or commodities price is not increase so the buying power will be increase. Recently china will increase consumer buying power for the reason that of giving goods or services in very low prices. CHAPTER # 3 INFLATION 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Types of Inflation 3.3Inflation in Pakistan 3.4Impact of Inflation in Pakistan 3. INFLATION 3.1 Introduction Inflation is a get higher in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level get higher; each unit of currency acquires less goods or services. as a result; inflation also reflects abrasion in the purchasing power of money. An increase in the supply of money relative to the availability of goods and services, resulting in higher prices and decrease in the purchasing power. There are many definitions of inflation. By inflation most people be aware of a sustained and substantial get higher in prices. For example: W.A.L COULBORN words: Ã¢â¬Å"too much money chasing too few goodsÃ¢â¬ . Prof SAMUELSON, Ã¢â¬Å"Inflation occurs when the general level of prices and costs is getting higherÃ¢â¬ . According to ROWAN, Ã¢â¬Å"inflation is the course of action of price increaseÃ¢â¬ HARRY G JOHNSON, Ã¢â¬Å"We define inflation as substantial increase in pricesÃ¢â¬ . According to CROWTHER, Ã¢â¬Å"inflation as a state in which the value of money is fallingÃ¢â¬ . According to MEYER, Ã¢â¬Å"An increase in the price that occurs after full employment has been attainedÃ¢â¬ . According to KEYNES, Ã¢â¬Å"The get higher in general price level after full employment had been achieved is called inflationÃ¢â¬ . 3.2 Types of Inflation Following are the types of inflation: Creeping inflation. Walking inflation or Mild inflation. Running inflation. Galloping or Hyper inflation. Demands pull inflation. Costs push inflation. Mixed inflation or Wage spiral inflation. Open inflation. Suppresses inflation. Profit induced inflation. Budgetary inflation or Deficit inflation. Monetary inflation. Income inflation. Production inflation. Devolution inflation. Imported inflation. Ceiling inflation. 3.2.1 Creeping InflationIt is a situation where the increase in the price level is very slow. In creeping inflation the get higher in price level is up to 2 % p.a. 3.2.2 Walking Inflation or Mild InflationWhen the rate of inflation is reasonable, not too high not too low. The get higher in price level is about 5 % p.a. This type of inflation has healthy effect on economy. 3.2.3 Running InflationIn this type of inflation, the general price level increase more sharply than the previous type. The get higher in price is about 8 to 10% p.a. 3.2.4 Galloping or Hyper Inflation When prices are getting higher at abnormal high rate, it is called hyper inflation. This type of inflation was experienced in Germany after Second World War. The price level increase many hundreds time and the purchasing power of people fell to very low level. This type of inflation is very dangerous. 3.2.5 Demand Pull InflationWhen inflation is due to excess of demand over aggregate supply, it is called demand pull inflation. Excess of aggregate demand pulls the price upwards. Aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply due to following reasons: Population explosion. Increase in exports. Structural backwardness. Increase in supply of money. Increase in income of people. Mass migration. Wars. 3.2.6 Cost Push InflationIt means a condition where prices are growing due to move up in the cost of production even if there is no increase in aggregate demand. Increase in costs pushes the price in the air. Cost push inflation occurs due to following reasons: Increase in wages. Increase the price of raw material. New taxes. Devaluation. Increase in energy prices. 3.2.7 Mixed Inflation or Wage Spiral InflationIt is the mixtures of demand pull and cost inflation. Originally prices get higher due to excessive increase in aggregate demand. Increase in raises the cost of living of the workers. In order to pay compensation high cost of living, worker demand for high wage rates. Demands for high wage rate are accepted during the period of getting higher prices. Increase in wages will move up the cost of production. For that reason increase in wages will push the price upward. Combined effect of wages and prices creates hyper inflation. 3.2.8 Open InflationIt is a situation when the inflation gets out of control and cannot be controlled by government price control policy is called open inflation. 3.2.9 Suppressed InflationIt is the situation when the inflation can be controlled by the government price control policy. 3.2.10 Profit Induced InflationWhen businessmen tend to increase their profit and increase the price of their commodities then their will be profit induced inflation. It is usually occurs in such economy which are dominated by monopolies. Monopolist is in the position to increase the price of his product at his will. 3.2.11 Budgetary Inflation or Deficit InflationWhen the revenue of the government is less than its expenditures, it is said to run budgetary deficit. To overcome this deficit govt. makes borrowing from internal and external source to increase the supply of money. Higher supply induced more consumption causing price level to high. 3.2.12 Monetary InflationWhen there is an spreading out in the currency notes in circulation then there will be monetary inflation. 3.2.13 IncomeInflationThe inflation which occurs from high income level is called income inflation. In consumption oriented society where propensity to consume is higher than propensity to save such higher income will bring on people to use up lavishly on consumer goods. 3.2.14 Production InflationThis inflation aget highers due to be short of of capital projects. If the course of action of industry is slow as compared to rare of growth of population, then soon the economy would be not capable to meet up all the needs of its members. Shortage of goods creates higher demand which forces the price to up. 3.2.15 Devaluation InflationDevaluation makes our currency not expensive in terms of foreign currency. It also makes all those goods cheap whose prices are in rupees. Further the exports of the country increases. Such increase in exports increases the profit and income of local exporters. It leads to inflation. 3.2.16 Imported InflationIt means the inflation that aget highers due to increase in the price of demand goods. Suppliers in foreign countries may increase the prices of their products. This will affect the domestic consumers and producers. They will be compelled to increase the price of goods. It will create inflation. 3.2.17 Ceiling Inflation that occurs due to a variety of ceiling prices of government. Ceiling prices are set by the government to maintain prices of essential goods. Price is seized below the equilibrium to maintain prices of essential goods. Prices are seized lower than the equilibrium price level of free market. However, the price ceiling from time to time invites black marketing. It may cause inflation. 3.3 INFLATON IN PAKISTAN Inflation during 2005-06 Inflation picked up to an average of 8.6% per annum for the duration of the last two years (2004-05 and 2005-06) for a variety of reasons. First and foremost was the extraordinary increase in international price of oil which more than doubled for the duration of the last years; reaching an all time high of $78/bbl. The increase in international oil prices, as a result contributed to the pick up in inflation during the last years. Next issue has been the surge in demand; which put force on prices. Four years of well-built economic growth (on average, 7.0% per annum) gave increase to the income levels of different segments of the society; which supported domestic demand and put getting higher pressure on prices of necessary commodities. The government had taken numerous actions to bring inflation downward during 2005-06. These actions included the tightening of monetary policy as well as enhancing the supply of necessary commodities through liberalizing of import command. As a result the on the whole inflation registered a turn down from 9.3% in 2004-05 to 7.9 in 2005-06. The majority importantly; food inflation declined from 12.4 to 6.9 during the same period. Non-food inflation on the other hand registered an increase from 7.1 to 8.6%. In 2006, the development in non-government sector borrowing was 23%. This development is reflected in the role of NGSB in inflation; which was 35% in 2005-2006. One significant issue is import prices; which explains 26.7% of the inflation in 2005-2006. The government levies did not cause any most important get higher in prices in 2005-2006. There was no additional strong force on import costs, for the reason that of a constant exchange rate, such policy cannot be continued for long at the same time as trade shortfall set the way. Inflation during 2006-07 In year 2006, core inflation from 7.1% in June 2006 came down to 5.5% in December 2006; due to the tighter monetary position. The CPI-based inflation during July-April 2006-2007 averaged 7.9% as against 8% in the same period last year. The single biggest element of the CPI is the food group; which showed an increase of 10.2%. This was higher than the 7% food inflation observed over the corresponding period of last year. According to the State Bank of Pakistan, the food inflation during the period increased for the reason that of supply side constraints. On the other hand, the non-food prices grew at a slower pace compared to last year. The non-food inflation averaged 6.2% between Julys-April 2006-07 while it stood at 8.8% in the corresponding period of last year. The non-food non-energy inflation (core inflation) decelerated sharply to 6% in first ten months of the fiscal year as against 7.7% in the same period last. The tight monetary policy pursued by the SBP has resulted in the sharp reduction in the core inflation. A more detailed analysis of the food group shows a considerable variation in inflation rates of the items included in the group. For example, considering the perishable and non-perishable items in the food group separately shows that nonperishable food prices rose by 9.0% while the perishable items prices grew by 17.6%. The estimated contributions to inflation for perishable and non-perishable items are 11.5% and 40% respectively when their weights are 5.14% and 35.2% respectively. Clearly, the contribution of perishable items to inflation is nearly twice its weight. An analysis of individual food items suggests that the major portion of food inflation during the current year stemmed from a limited number of items including rice, edible oil, pulses, meat, milk, tea, eggs, wheat, vegetables and fruits. These items have experienced relatively larger increase in their prices during th e course of 2006-2007. However, prices of other important food items like sugar, potatoes, tomatoes, Moong pulse and chicken (farm) have shown a decline in their prices owing to improved availability of these items in the market. Inflation during 2007-08 Pakistans inflation in 2007 remained virtually unaffected from the 2006 rate, standing at 7.8%. The inflationary trend in food prices persisted through most of the fiscal year and was even higher, at 10.3% in 2007, affecting people living on low and fixed incomes. The analysis suggests that the inflation was for the most part food price driven. Prices of a variety of types of pulses have increased this year for the reason that of the short supply of these pulses in the country. In view of the fact that milk powder and tea are also importable items, the domestic prices were higher on the back of higher international prices. The inflation in 2007 was fuelled by worldwide increases in a variety of goods prices, higher utility tariffs and by local supply- and demand-driven issues. To include food inflation; Pakistans government extended the public-sector utility-store network, extending it even into rural areas. All the way through the network the government provides large subsidies for the sale of necessary edibles. The central bank reacted to high inflation by tightening monetary policy; it concurrently raised the discount rate; the cash necessity on demand deposits and the statutory liquidity requirement of demand and time deposits. In view of the other CPI groups; the maximum inflation was in the Medicare group and energy with reported 10 month inflation of 9.1% and 7.3% respectively. But in view of the fact that their weights are small in the CPI basket (2.1% and 8.7%) their contribution to inflation was small. On the other hand; house rent which has a 23.4% weight in the CPI; showed a go down in infl ation from 10.3% to 6.7%. Inflation during 2008-09 A delay in including more areas and in revising consumption patterns for measurement of inflation has helped the government to cover up real inflationary pressures in the economy, claimed Dawn. Earlier than the start of the year; the government had finished the family budget survey; launched in July 2007 for the purpose of revising the base for measurement of inflation. The exercise was delayed for years on the pretext of non-availability of funds. A senior official at FBS said that the excuse of non-availability of funds for conducting survey to revise the base year of CPI was unjust for the reason that the government had started a number of other surveys and projects, reported Dawn. Analysts say the government wanted to carry on with the previous model for the reason that it was based on a survey of urban areas only; ignoring rural consumers who compget higherd 70% of the whole population. In addition; a lot of objects covered by the survey are either obsolete or their consumption has declined drastically with the passage of time. The present average rate of inflation is around 25% and if the base year is revised it will go up to over 30%. This remarkably high trend is primarily a reason of high food inflation. Inflation for the duration of 2008 point out that prices of a few (18) necessary food items registered quick increase mainly for the duration of the second half of the fiscal year 2008. Other major contributors to 2008s getting higher inflationary trend included house rent, which is the index that measures the cost of production in Pakistan, racing to 11.35% by April 2008. Inflation during 2009-2010 According to the Inflation Outlook covering the period of January-June 2009, the inflation is expected to be in the range of 21.3 percent in the current month of January 2009 as against 11.9% in January 2008. According to a Projection, presented Economic condition committee of the Cabinet meeting held on January 13, 2009 inflation was calculated at 24.3 percent at the start of July in 2007. According the reserve, the reason of Inflation is the continuation of year 2010. The Survey discovered that public was expecting that Inflation would increase in future. It showed that demand-pull, cost push, structural issues were responsible for current inflation in Pakistan and the government policies were not useful to enhance growth. In progress reason of inflation consist of demand, pull, cost push, structure inflation. The survey discovered that cost-push issue was much responsible for causing inflation. The contribution of cost push inflation was 29.1% followed by demand-pull factor (14%), structure issues 13.5%. Collectively; all the three issues were contributing about 56.1% to in progress inflation. Inflation during 2010-2011 According to the assessments of analysts and researches; food inflation is the most important reason behind the speedy inflation. The CPI inflation turned out higher than expectations as it rose by 13.23% on yearly basis (2.51% on monthly basis) during the month of August 2010. Food inflation, for the duration of August 2010 increased by 15.62% on yearly basis (5.10% on monthly basis). As well, food inflationary impact contributed as much as 91% of the total monthly basis CPI inflation. Items that exceeded expectations included perishables such as vegetables as well as ghee. This reinforces that existing inflationary pressure is due to food inflation. The same provides support to the argument that an upward revision in discount rate should not aged higher out of inflationary concerns. The government borrowings have also stayed within handy bound so far, although it runs the risk of getting higher upon fiscal concerns (deficit of 6.5% for FY11 is already projected).This only shows to be the single most major issue in driving the interest rate direction for FY11.CPI inflation has clocked in at 13.23% on yearly basis in August 2010; slightly high than the forecast of 12.85% yearly and against 12.34% yearly in July 2010. With a joint weight of 55% in the CPI basket, food, energy, transport inflation rose by 15.62%, 21.29% and 14.27%, respectively on yearly basis.The State Bank of Pakistan has recently followed a policy of headline inflation targeting. In this regard; higher than projected CPI in August 2010 and likely up tick above 15% on yearly basis in Sep 2010 may guide to an upward force on the discount rate going ahead; mainly if the SBP maintains its anticipatory position and sidelines down trending core inflation. Table: Annual Rate of Inflation (Percentage) in Pakistan for Period 2004-2011 Graph: Annual rate of Inflation in Pakistan for Period 2004 to 2011 3.4 Impact of I
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Biology and Psychology University has always appealed to me because of the wealth of experiences it has to offer as a student. Although I enjoy English Literature and Chemistry: two of my 'A level´ subjects, I am especially keen to study Biology and Psychology. For me, the main appeal of the course lies in the variety of topics that will be covered. The aspects of Biology I find particularly interesting are neuroscience and how the immune system functions and responds. In Psychology, I am very interested in what makes people unique and how different factors shape our personality. I have had two work placements (East Barnet Library in June 1998 and WH Smith in April 2000), both of which proved successful and productive. These experiences especially allowed me to use my interpersonal skills to the full. In my references, both employers remarked on my willingness to learn, my enthusiasm and initiative as well as my ability to work independently and as part of a team. One of the most interesting posts I have held in school is Deputy Managing Director of the 'Young Enterprise´ company, "Opus 21", I found the experience both rewarding and challenging. We encountered some problems at first, but the team worked together to solve them and I felt a real sense of pride to see the company succeed. My skills were further put to use when I helped represent my school in the 'Team Technology´ competition at the 'Logica´ headquarters in London. This involved solving problems in highly realistic business situations, within a limited time. My group was Runner-up, winning one week of work experience with 'Logica´ and prize money for our school. Throughout my schooling I have been closely involved in charity work. Being sponsored to speak French for a day proved to be one of my most innovative (and amusing!) methods of raising money. I have a variety of hobbies outside school. When time allows, I find playing the keyboard and creative writing, such as poetry, a change from my studies. I enjoy using computers as a hobby and to broaden the skills I have gained from my RSA word processing course. My other pursuits include more physical activities such as attending the gym regularly, dancing and cycling.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Abstract: We investigate the management system of the enterprise as an agent maintaining a system of objectives. We then analyse the organisation as a set of individual autonomous co-operating agents so that agenthood of the entire enterprise becomes an emergent property of the organisation. Important questions include: under what condition can agenthood emerge? how to create such an organisation?, and how to guarantee that change preserves agenthood?. Introduction It is increasingly important to devise faster and more reliable ways of designing purposeful, agile organisations (Bernus et al, 1997). We use the definition of the organisation as the human component of the enterprise, forming the human-organisational architecture (Williams, 1994). An enterprise can be thought of as consisting of an operational and a decisional system (Doumeingts et al, 1998), each implemented partly by humans and partly by machines (Bernus and Nemes, 1994). We borrow the definition of the 'planning agent' from artificial intelligence to describe the desired quality of the organisation. We demonstrate necessary conditions for the enterprise to behave as an agent, and also show the relationship of this view to concepts such as the fractal factory, holonic manufacturing, and others. The organisation as an agent Two crucial questions in organisational design are: 1) how to design the task structure of the enterprise to form a co-ordinated whole? and 2) what tasks allocation to humans (or groups) ensures that the enterprise will act to satisfy its objectives? The second question is typically not asked in business process engineering: it is assumed that the organisation will to what it is told to. An organisation should conduct a system of activities managed and controlled to satisfy a set of organisational objectives. This requires purposeful behaviour so that the organisation can be characterised as a planning agent. A planning agent determines a course of action to achieve its set of objectives. This course of action, or plan, is constrained by the agent's resources as well as the agent's own functional capabilities. The organisation follows, or appears to be following this plan while monitoring the effectiveness of the actions to actually satisfy the objectives for which the plan was made. If the plan fails in some way, then the plan or the objectives are m... ...319-332 Koestler,A.. (1989) The ghost in the machine. Arkana Books Tharumarajah, A., Wells,J., Nemes,L., (1996) Comparison of the bionic, fractal and holonic manufacturing systems concepts. Int. J. on Computer Integrated Manuf. (3) pp.217-226 Uppington,G., Bernus,P., Assessing the Necessity of Enterprise Change: Pre-feasibility and Feasibility Studies in Enterprise Integration. Int. J. of CIM, 1998 11(5) pp 430-447 Valckenaers,P., VanBrussel,H., Bongaerts,L., Wyns,J. (1997) IMS test case 5: holonic manufacturing systems. Journal of Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, 4(3), pp191-201. VanHouten,D.R. (1990) The political economy and technical control of work humanization in Sweden during the 1970s and 1980s. Work and Occupations, 14, pp483-513. Warnecke, H.J. (1993) The Fractal Company. Berlin: Springer. Williams,T.J., (1994) The Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture. Computers in Industry, 24 (2-3) pp141-158 Williams,T.J., Bernus,P., Brosvic,J., Chen,D., Doumeingts,G., Nemes,L., Nevins,J.L., Vallespir,B., Vlietstra,J., Zoetekouw,D., (1994) Architectures for integrating manufacturing activities and enterprises. Computers in Industry, 24(2-3) pp111-140
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Pocahontas For more than two centuries since the death of the Indian princess Pocahontas, legends and stories of romance have been imbedded into our minds, but her dramatic life was more important to the creation of a segment of American history than legend. Around the year of 1595, Pocahontas was born to chief Powhatan, the powerful chief of a federation of Algonquian Indian tribes who lived in the tidewater region of Virginia (Sahlman). She was but one of the many children of Powhatan, who ruled more than 25 tribes. Her real name was Matoaka, a name used only within the tribe (Sahlman). Her tribe, the Powhatans, believed that harm would come to them if outsiders learned of their tribal name (Jamestown). Therefore, she went by Pocahontas, a nickname given to her meaning Ã¢â¬Å"little wantonÃ¢â¬ for she was a playful, frolicsome little girl (Sahlman). The settlers believed it to mean Ã¢â¬Å"bright stream between two hills.Ã¢â¬ The Powhatans were not savages, as John Smith would later claim in his The General History of Virginia. Instead, they were a ceremonious people who greeted important visitors in a formal manner with a large feast and festive dancing (Sahlman). Although they did occasionally put prisoners to death in a public ceremony, it was no more savage than the English customs of public disembowelment of thieves and the burning of women accused of being witches (Sahlman). In May of 1607, English colonists arrived on the Virginia shoreline with hopes of great ric...
Monday, September 16, 2019
Introduction The British military was considered the strongest in the world at the outreach of fighting between England and the American colonies in 1775. Britain had just defeated France and the Indians in the Seven Years War and had attained its prominence as a worldÃ¢â¬â¢s superpower. Yet despite BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s overpowering military dominance, the British found themselves unable to subdue General Washington and the American colonies. The AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s success in achieving independence during the American Revolution was not due to General WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic skill but by numerous British blunders. The British mistakes during the Revolutionary war are: they never had an overall strategy; they failed to identify the Center of Gravity, shifting from offensive strategy to a defensive strategy and diverting the war to the Southern colonies. Overall strategy The British never had an overall strategy for winning the Revolutionary War. They acted vigilantly at points when authoritative and serious attacks could have undermined the Continental army. The British assumed that American rebellion would disintegrate when British troops lands on American shores. They believed that the Continental Army was amateurish and unable to fight a interminable war against an organized British military force. Not until after the Battle of Bunker did the British even begin to consider in terms of war rather than simply rebellion. Britain certainly not intended for a lengthy war and constantly expected for the one pivotal victory. The Continental Army was fighting a domestic war while the British had to ship their troops from across the Atlantic. Fighting against their own countrymen was also both a psychological and emotional handicap for the British soldiers. The British military regularly made mistakes, especially General Howe. His indolence to take action at the start of the war made it probable for General Washington and the Continental Army to survive. Occurrences of poor communication and collaboration between British commanders resulted in squandered occasions as well in Saratoga and Yorktown. The component of period unceasingly handicapped British maneuvers. Communications both across the Atlantic and within the colonies were dawdling and useless. Some commanders took matters into their own hands and followed strategies that they felt best suited their immediate goals. The indecision surrounding responses frequently led to unwarranted caution, unnecessary delays, or unforeseeable prospects in strategic situations, which eventually demonstrated to be costly. Because of the length of time it took for communications, field conditions continually changed. Failure to identify the Center of Gravity The Americans had no discernable central government and the British could not determine a truly decisive Center of the Gravity (COG). The COG is the hub of all power and movement, on which everything depends (Clausewitz, pp. 595-596). There was no COG that Britain could seize and end the war. There was no one that the British military could defeat that would quickly bring about the abandonment of the entire colonist opposition. Throughout the campaign, General Howe continued to allow the Continental Army to withdraw from the field without entirely destroying them. General HoweÃ¢â¬â¢s unwillingness to conduct a forceful pursuit and destroy General WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Continental Army saved the Americans from a defeat that could have possibly ended the American Revolution. General Howe did not take into account that the Continental Army was the life of the rebellion and should have been considered as the COG. The British dissipated an opportunity to inflict a destructive defeat on the Continental army at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775. Although they strained the insurgents from the elevated field, the British army missed their chance to deal the rebellion a possibly disastrous blow from the start. Another chance of destruction of the Continental Army came in August 1776. General Washington and the Continental Army had been routed in the Battle of Long Island and withdrew to the defenses of Brooklyn Heights, which left them confined between Hessian and British troops and the East River. General Washington was able to keep the revolution alive by maintaining the Continental Army in the field. Shifting from offensive strategy to a defensive strategy Without French assistance, it is uncertain that the American colonies could have been a match over BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s sizeable and well-equipped military. France clandestinely provided the American colonies with supplies and money, and upon formally declaring war on England in June 1778, also committed soldiers and naval fleets. With the French joining the naval war, Britain switched from an offensive strategy to a defensive strategy since their naval superiority is contested. Operations in America became secondary to defense of the British Isles and larger economic interests in the Caribbean. The ministry decided to defend and strike the French in West Indies, which was regarded as more valuable than the American colonies. The British militaries had to be dispersed in several theaters and spread so thin across the Atlantic and no longer concentrated on the colonies, which consequently lost the war in America (Middlekauff, p. 438). BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to identify key locations to concentrate her Navy led to not able to secure their most strategically located territories and did not have enough military resources to continue the war in America. Ã¢â¬Å"With the defense thus concentrated, EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s great weapon, the Navy, should have been vigorously used on the offensiveÃ¢â¬ (Mahan, p. 394). Diverting the war to the southern colonies During the initial years of the American Revolutionary War, the initial military battles were in the north. The British changed their strategy to focus on the southern colonies as the leadership felt that the south was home to many loyalists where they could enlist their support and assistance. England felt loyalists in the South were oppressed by the revolutionary government and would flock to them in support (Mahan, p. 516). Britain constantly pursued and hoped for Loyalist support but was never received. Moreover, Britain also definitely did not do what was needed to gain and sustain the LoyalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ support because they inclined to disregard the help that the Loyalists contributed. In addition, the British Parliament assumed that loyalists would be a more intimidating force and play a more effective position in the war. The British was successful in most conventional battles fought in that region, but American generals in the south turned to irregular and hit-and-run combat that ultimately thwarted the British military. The British should have focused most of their forces on the Continental Army in the north instead of taking the south. Counter-Argument Some argue American independence might not have won without the leadership of General George Washington. He was honest, brave, and sure that the America and its Continental Army can win. He certainly not gave up faith that he would reach that object. His first military victory resulted in the British evacuating Boston in March 1776. General Washington reevaluated the wisdom of the tactical defensive and thereafter avoided confrontations with large concentrations of enemy forces after unsuccessful defense of New York and next Philadelphia. General Washington came to realization that it was far more critical for him to maintain the army as an entity than it was to win any particular battle or campaign (Weigley, p.12). Instead of trying to defeat the British in one decisive action, General Washington instinctively realized that the revolution would survive as long as the Continental army survived. Washington had to remain not only on the strategic defensive, but frequently on the tactical defensive, as well. He correctly understood that, by keeping his army intact, he could keep the revolution alive. If he could maintain the war long enough, Britain would exhaust her resources and struggle across the Atlantic and independence would be gained. Although General Washington lacked major victories in the Revolutionary war, his noted two tactical successes, at Trenton and Princeton, were conducted against smaller concentrations of an enemy force. But, General Washington made a number of excellent decisions at crucial times throughout the conflict. Conclusion Britain had an enormous military advantage at the beginning of the American Revolution with vastly superior naval power and a professional military with far greater financial resources. The British fought a much weaker enemy yet failed to accomplish its military and political objectives. General Washington recognized that the Continental Army was the backbone of the revolution, the Center of Gravity, where the British failed to identify. Another reason was the assistance the Americans received from the French. The British military were remarkably unmatched and clearly the superior army, and had the French not provided aid, it seems unlikely that General Washington and the Continental Army could have defeated the British. They pulled together and were able to capitalize on the BritishÃ¢â¬â¢s blunders. Bibliography 1. Clausewitz, C. On War. Michael Howard and Peter Paret, eds. and trans. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989 2. Mahan, A. T. The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. New York: Dover, 1987. 3. Middlekauff, R. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. 4. Weigley, R. F. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.
Audism Unveiled Audism by itÃ¢â¬â¢s very definition is a negative or oppressive attitude towards deaf people by either deaf or hearing people and organizations, and a failure to accommodate them. This documentary really opened my eyes as to what deaf people have gone through since the beginning of time. They have been treated with prejudice and oppression. They have been looked down upon- as if they are some sort of Ã¢â¬Å"subhumanÃ¢â¬ not worthy of being classified as a normal person because of the fact that they cannot hear. Audism goes under the same category as racism, sexism, discrimination, etc. In the movie, Ã¢â¬Å"Audism Unveiled,Ã¢â¬ they were many testimonials of different deaf people explaining their stories of oppression simply because of the fact that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re deaf or hard of hearing. Deaf people often have difficulty communicating with the hearing world and thus, they have been looked down upon with sympathy. They need to be healed. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re disabled. They canÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same jobs as hearing people. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s sickening how deaf people get treated. There was a deaf man in the film who explained how his parents would take him to a religious shrine and have a priest and his mother pray for him so his deafness can be Ã¢â¬Å"healed.Ã¢â¬ It, obviously, did nothing and he is still deaf and he seems happy that way. Another deaf man exclaimed how his parents made him go to a medicine man in a smoke filled hut, hoping that this kind of ritual will help him. But since he did not take the ritual seriously, his parents said thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work. But, religion is not going to help the situation anymore than screaming at them will. But some stories were sad: A deaf man explained how his mother never learned to sign even though the man has been deaf since childhood. One day, when she was in her 80Ã¢â¬â¢s, she asked him if she should have learned sign language, baffled, the man asked why she was asking this. But she shrugged it off, and a year later, she was on her death bed, trying to write a note to her son and mid-write, she passed away. The man never knew what her last words to her son were going to be. Now, he is an advocate for parents of deafÃ children to learn sign language so that no one would ever have to experience what he had to. I think that all parents with deaf children should embrace their child and their new culture and learn the language that is most easy for their child to communicate in. Most deaf children feel lonely and abandoned from their families because no one ever bothers to include them into family conversations. Whenever the deaf person would ask whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on, they would say Ã¢â¬Å"Oh weÃ¢â¬â¢ll tell you later.Ã¢â¬ Always the same thing and deaf people are tired of it. They want to know now and be included! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not fair that they have to be left out just because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re deaf. It causes depression and resentment in the deaf person when the family constantly excludes the deaf family member. In some situations, deafness was viewed as evil. One man said that his aunt told him that he must have been a bad man in his past-life and as punishment, he was born deaf in this life-time. Hearing people do view being deaf as a misfortune, but that does not justify the way that they get treated by hearing people. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s horrible how they are viewed as unable. I would hate to imagine someone treating me like IÃ¢â¬â¢m not able because IÃ¢â¬â¢m Hispanic or because IÃ¢â¬â¢m gay. It would tear me apart and IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure most deaf people feel the same way. Audism needs to be a bigger issue among hearing people and they need to know that being deaf is not a handicap, deaf people are not looking for sympathy. They want to be treated as equals.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
A Night at the Opera Analysis Paper A Night at the Opera is a 1935 American comedy film starring the Marx brothers. Groucho Marx, Chico Marx and Harpo Marx. The Marx brothers influence on comedy can still be seen in todays films. There is very few comedians that have ever had as long a lasting influence or been as well-known as they are. It is absolutely astonishing that after over seventy years, it still portrays the same amount of enjoyment and laughter in Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ viewers as it did when the film was first distributed.The language of their comedy has not dulled over time, aspects of Marx brother humor can be found throughout sit-coms, movies, comedic acts and especially cartoons. I have been a huge fan of the show called I Love Lucy since I was about 7 years old, but I never knew that the Marx brothers had such an influence on the show and that they based a lot of there comedy scenes from the Marx brothers, and Harpo had actually starred in one of their episodes as well . In the film A Night at the Opera they have a singer names Ricardo Baroni, and in the set of I Love Lucy her husbans name is Ricky Ricardo.I feel as if since A Night at the Opera played such a big influence on their show that maybe they were trying to place that name in there as some type of contribute to them and their film. I also have seen many scenes in the cartoon Tom and Jerry that tie in together from the Marx brothers. This is just proof that from Groucho's wisecracking word play, Chico conning every person he can when he has the chance, to the way Harpo's doesn't speak and frankly comes off really dumb founded. There sense of humor is timeless and forever will be a true classic.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
After further analysis and the additional resources made available by Mr. Martin to the Blue Zuma Project, we have determined the following recommendations be implemented immediately to ensure that our retailers have the product by February 1, as established by our Mr. Lane. The concern with the original project plan revolved around three activities not having enough resources to complete the project per the timeline identified above.Those three activities were: Detailed Product Design, Detailed Marketing Plan and Manufacturing Process. With the additional resources made available, we are confident we can improve the process within the three activities identified above. 1. Which additional personnel assignments would you choose to complete the project before the February 1st deadline? Explain your choices as well as the reasons for not choosing other options. It appears an additional marketing specialist would be best utilized for this job.The resource sheet depicts that the marketin g specialist is still overallocated; however the other resources appear to be allocated correctly when we added the additional resources provided by Mr. Lane. Cost would be an important factor in determining if any additional employees will/would be needed. However, we can approve overtime to address some concerns. 2. How have these changes affected the sensitivity of the network? Once the changes are in place, the duration of the project has been reduced from 290 days to 274 days.This improvement has reduced the overall length of the project, thus allowing the deadline set by the Mr. Lane (President). We are confident we can now complete the project by January 27. By allocating the additional and available resources, we were able to reduce the amount of critical paths to one. In doing so, we increase the slack in non-critical activities, thus reducing or decreasing the sensitivity of the network. One critical path is now identified in the project.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Thomas Jefferson - Essay Example The purpose of education is to enlighten and promote inquiry. Religion has an antithetical purpose. It closes the mind, discourages inquiry and promotes dogmatism. As Jefferson writes, the churchmen who taught him betrayed a deeper interest in "how many angels could dance on the head of a pin" while they should have taught their students "how to make that pin work better for mankind." The implication here is that religion in the classroom and churchmen as teachers will not promote investigative inquiry and may stifle students' natural curiosity. Jefferson advocates a practical approach to education, one which will teach students that which they need for their own intellectual maturation and that which the nation itself requires for its development and advancement. With that objective in mind, Jefferson first proposes "general diffusion of knowledge," as in the provision of public education to all citizens. Within the context of public education, the subjects which should be taught are reading, writing, arithmetic and history. Beyond the parameters of a curriculum whose goal is the promotion of numerical and linguistic literacy, Jefferson proposes that the more advanced, the more talented of the students receive a higher education at the expense of the taxpayers. The subjects which should be taught should be reflective of enlightenment and reason. These subjects are "anatomy, medicine, modern languages, and science." The selection of these subjects is predicated on Jefferson's belief that they promote practical and useful kn owledge. Opposed to the "tyranny of the traditional curriculum," Jefferson's education plan revolves around three core objectives. The first is the propagation of knowledge for the purposes of developing a literate, knowledgeable populace who is capable of constructively contributing to the nation's growth and advancement. The second is a more intensive and focused period of higher education, provided at the taxpayers' expense, to those who have displayed intellectual talent and who have the potential to constructively contribute to national advancement. The subjects that these students will be taught are practical, useful and determined by their inclinations. The third core principle upon which Jefferson's education plan is founded is the exclusion of religion from educational system in response to the "tyranny of religious dogma" and the extent to which it functions as an obstacle to the promotion of investigative inquiry, knowledge and critical thinking. It need be noted that despite the fact that Jefferson's own educational experience left much to be desired, his education was typical of his peers. At first, he was educated by his father and taught basic literacy and survival skills. Following that, he was educated in a family schoolhouse by both secular and teachers and churchmen. At this point, his education was traditional and focused on the classics. As he explains, fear was the primary motivator in his education; fear of being beaten by his teacher. Added to that, from Jefferson's perspective, his education, while typical of that of his contemporaries, was impractical. In commentary upon the stated, one may affirm the validity of Jefferson's evaluation of the educational system of his time. Besides diffusing knowledge, education is supposed to broaden the mind and contribute to the development
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Ebook-Importance of technology in Retailing - Assignment Example In the modern society and in the field of retail business, technology has taken a very significant role in the success of retail ventures (Jha, 2009). These different facets of technology include information systems like inventory control systems, customer record systems and business intelligence tracking (Jha, 2009, pp. 153). Due to the foreseen importance of technology in the working of modern retail business, this paper will explore the impact of technology on global retailing and also explore its impact on retail marketing in the UK. Further, the paper will explore the STP of retail marketing in the UK and also study the field of e-commerce. Advances in technology have led to an overlap in the traditional and the digital channels of retail marketing, which is evident from the dominant role of competitive intelligence and constant monitoring (Motorola Solutions, 2014). The trends that demonstrate the impact of technology in the global retail marketing field include that there has been a huge growth in the collection of customer-centric data. This information is used to offer indicators about the changes in the buying behaviours of customers (Deloitte). In the light of these modern global trends, visionary retailers have employed the technologies that personalize the shopping experiences of their customers; the implementation of these technologies has afforded better information and interconnectedness to customers (Motorola Solutions, 2014). The power of predictive data analytics has continued to offer retailers more access to structured and unstructured data; this change has enabled retailers to develop better insights about consumption trends and the behaviours of shoppers (Siegel, 2013). Forward-looking retailers are using different channels to do their retail marketing. The omnichannel outlook offers retailers, the opportunity to guarantee their
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Is the Cost of College Too High - Annotated Bibliography Example Crouch, Michelle. "10 Reasons to Skip the Expensive Colleges: Are Ivy League schools really worth the price?" ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest. September 2011. Web. 16 October 2013.The author disclosed ten reasons why it was argued that parents and decision makers of students pursuing higher education should think twice before opting to enroll in Ivy League schools due to exorbitant costs of college education. The strengths of the article, therefore, lie in clearly enumerating rationales for seeking other alternative options for pursuing higher education rather than setting their minds on Ivy League Schools. Likewise, at the end of the discourse, the author provided a link to the list of affordable colleges which could be considered as alternative options. The weaknesses that were noted include the lack of citations and a reference list where readers could verify the authenticity of the information that was provided; as well as the lack of statistical information that could validate arguments from an authoritative perspective. Overall, the discourse could still be used in the current research as a source of inputs for writing the proposed recommendations or courses of action, which could include the recommended option of seeking other least expensive educational institutions which could also provide an equally rewarding educational environment. Likewise, some examples that were noted could also be used; as long as these could be aptly verified as to their authenticity and reliability prior to inclusion in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s research.
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
How Can a Child with ADHD Be Supported And Included In School Education - Essay Example Potential teacher factors which might be important to consider in such compatibility equations are discussed, along with the implications of these variables for school-based assessment and intervention processes and future research. A substantial literature on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has accumulated over the past 2 decades. An impressive portion of this literature has addressed the difficulties students with ADHD experience in school classrooms and the efficacy of interventions to minimize these difficulties. Medication and behaviour management procedures remain the two most commonly employed school-based interventions for children with ADHD (Rapport, 1992, 155-163). Due to well-documented limitations associated with both strategies, some combination of the two is generally accepted as the optimal approach to treatment. Nevertheless, an increasingly common finding in studies which examine the efficacy of such a combined approach to treatment is the considerable variability in treatment response among individual students (Pelham, 1993). As such, a case-by-case assessment of treatment ingredients and potencies is necessary (Abramowitz, 1994; Hoza, 1992). Hence, successful sch ool outcomes for students with ADHD depend upon the degree to which treatment components and potencies match the needs of particular children. This "match" between treatment and student may best be conceptualized as a "compatibility equation" (in this case, student-treatment compatibility) in which characteristics of both child and treatment are taken into consideration in planning treatment and evaluating outcome. Studies examining student response to treatment can be criticized for an almost singular focus on treatment ingredients, as well as a relative neglect of student characteristics that may mediate treatment outcome. Yet perhaps the most striking limitation of school-based treatment outcome research has been the lack of consideration of teacher characteristics that may have a significant bearing on outcome. Two additional compatibility equations --teacher-treatment compatibility (the match between different teachers and different treatment ingredients and potencies) and student-teacher compatibility (the match between a particular teacher and a particular student with ADHD with regard to a variety of factors) -- have been virtually ignored. This article suggests that a more adequate and predictive model from which to conceptualize classroom outcome for students with ADHD will be one in which "teacher factors" are given greater consideration. Goodness-of-Fit and System Theory The terms compatibility and match can be traced most directly to the goodness-of-fit literature (Thomas, 1998). Goodness-of-fit is a concept that has been applied productively to child-care-giver interactions (Bell & Harper, 2003; Thomas & Chess, 2001); several authors have noted that the concept may be relevant to child-teacher
Monday, September 9, 2019
What Should Eastern European Migrants in UK Do In Order To Be More Gainfully Employed - Dissertation Example 20 i. Factors that will make the Eastern European Migrant Workers become More Gainfully Employed in UK Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 21 III. Research Methodology Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 23 a. Primary Research Study Design Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 23 b. Quantitative Research Survey Questionnaire Design Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 23 c. Site Settings, Population and Sample Size Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 24 d. Methods of Quantitative Measurements Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 24 e. Research Ethics Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 25 IV. Research Findings and Analysis Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 26 V. Conclusion and Recommendations...Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 31 a. Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 31 b. Recommendations Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 32 References Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 34 Appendixes Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦ 45 Appendix I Ã¢â¬â Research Survey Questionnaire Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 45 Appendix II Ã¢â¬â Summary of Research Survey Results Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦... 48 Tables and Figures Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 52 Table I Ã¢â¬â List of Qualifications According to Each Category Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 52 Table II Ã¢â¬â Out-of-Work Benefits...The ability to work and to live abroad made thousands of people leave their home and go to look for a better living in UK. Hull, like other cities in UK experienced rising number of immigrants coming from East and Central Europe. According to Department for Work & Pensions, the total number of immigrants coming to Hull between 2004 Ã¢â¬â 2008 from east and central European countries was 6.780. Even though news reports claim that the economic recession in UK has ended (Allen 2011), a lot of Eastern European Immigrant workers are still facing difficulties with employment in UK. To understand why the Eastern European Immigrant workers are still facing difficulties with employment in UK, this study aims to gather secondary research data in order to clarify what is going on in the UK economy today. In order to achieve the aims of this study, a research survey will be conducted in order to learn more about the specific hopes and needs of the Eastern European migrant workers in the UK.