Monday, January 27, 2020
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Design And Build Method Construction Essay While construction contracts serves as a means of pricing construction, they also structure the allocation of risk to the various parties involved. The construction field is a very extensive and unique in each project. In this world most of the projects are managed by contracts. And as a principle to manage the project effectively we should first manage the contracts. The owner has the sole power to decide what type of contract delivery method should be used for a specific facility to be constructed and to set forth the terms in a contractual agreement. A firm has to choose the right delivery method which is project to project base and present its bid offer to the engineer/client during tendering stage to enable it to present competitive price and win the project without compromising the functional and the quality of the project. Choosing the right method to deliver the project will ease the project execution and give flexibility during construction as well as saving money and time for a firm and subsequently the same to the owner. It is important to understand the risks of the contractors associated with different type of delivery methods. In this instant you may ask what the contract delivery methods are and we should choose the right delivery methods. Projects delivery methods. There are three types of project delivery methods. In this section we will concentrate on design and Build because it s the best method for small and medium projects. 1- Tender or design-bid-build method In this type the owner/client will choose engineer to design the whole project and get the Approvals from authorities then floating tender to choose suitable contractor for the Construction under his supervision. In this type of method the client /engineer has full control of the project and the contractor has to comply with full design given by the engineer. Most suitable type of contract for this method is lump sum contract which the price given by the Contractor is fixed and the whole project is already designed and the scope of work is clear and fully detailed. 2-indefinite quantity contract method Under this type of contract there shall be no design and it is based on maintenance or repairing projects. Under this agreement the owner and the contractor will upfront set up prices for the labors and Equipments and markup etc 3- Design and build method. The term design-build refers to a range of alternatives to the traditional project delivery system. A useful way to look at design-build is by what it is not. Traditional design-bid-build is a segmented, sequential process in which the owner first contracts With a design professional to prepare detailed, suitable-for-construction plans and specifications (or Sometimes has them prepared by its in-house engineers), then uses the detailed plans and Specifications to solicit competitive bids for construction, and finally awards the construction Contract to the low bidder. Design-build means a procurement process in which both the design and construction of A project is procured from a single contractor. Usually, the design-build contract is awarded by some process other than competitive bidding Providing the best value (in price, features, functions [and] life-cycle costs) Thus, design-build differs from traditional design-bid-build in two ways. First, the design and construction components are packaged into a single contract. Second, the single contract is not necessarily awarded to the low bidder after competitive bidding I-Why Design-Build? (Advantages) Potential Cost Savings Design-build has the potential to reduce over-all project cost because the design-build contractor performing the design has a better feel for the construction cost of various alternatives, Thus can come up with a design that is less expensive to build and has an incentive to do so. Another way to look at this advantage is that it moves value engineering cost reduction incentive After contract award (with the contractor proposing cost-reduction ideas and sharing the savings with the owner) to pre-award (with the owner enjoying most of the cost savings). B. Earlier Project Completion Design-build may result in earlier completion and occupancy of the project because there is no Dead time between completion of design and start of construction. Further, the design-build Contractor can begin construction of early phases of the project (e.g. mobilization, site utilities, Foundations) before design of later phases (building envelope, interior partitions, HVAC, electrical) Is 100 percent complete? This process sometimes is referred to as fast track. C. Reduced Claims Exposure Design-build eliminates the liability gap. Design professionals can obtain insurance coverage only for negligent errors and omissions, and virtually all design contracts limit the designers liability to such. However, there can be non-negligent errors and omissions, which cost the owner money but for which the design professional is not liable. For example, a design professional may undertake Reasonable subsurface investigations but fail to detect a rock outcropping that will require additional work. In the traditional design-bid-build approach, the owner warrants the correctness of the plans and Specifications to the construction contractor. There can be design mistakes for which the owner is liable to the construction contractor under the Warranty of correctness but cannot transfer the liability on to the design professional. Even when the designer is in fact negligent, proving negligence can be difficult. The owner must obtain a certificate of merit from another design professional and then prove that the designer failed to meet the applicable professional standard of care, which requires expert testimony. On the other hand, the contractor usually can prove there was a defect in the plans that cost the Contractor money based on fact testimony alone. Thus, the owner may have to bear the cost. Design- build eliminates this gap because the design-bid build entity has no one but itself to blame For defective plans and specifications or differing site conditions. D. New Technologies Public Contracts usually prohibits brand-name or model-number specifications unless the Specification lists at least two brand names and is followed by the phrase or equal. This makes it difficult for traditional design-bid-build to reach innovative, proprietary Products where there may be only one brand-name and no equal. Further, substitution of a new or equal product for a standard product often is impracticable Because of the ripple effect. The designer designs the project around current generation Products and substitution of new or equal products after bidding can require revisions to structure, mechanical or electrical components to accommodate the new product. Who is going to pay for these ripple changes? Design-build resolves this problem. The design-build contractor selects the equipment (right down to make and model number) and Then designs the building around the selected equipment, which is a more logical way to proceed. In fact, the design-build contractor can sometimes obtain free design assistance from equipment Manufacturers desiring that their new technologies be used. E. Over-All Project Optimization Design-bid-build can suffer from sub-optimization when individual project participants optimize their own positions, often at the expense of the over-all project. The total cost to the owner of a building element, such as the steel frame, includes the cost of the engineering to determine the required steel sections plus the cost of the steel. The designer has little incentive to use a sharp pencil to achieve the minimum amount of Structural steel; he optimizes his own position by spending only the design time necessary to Ensure that there is enough steel to meet gravity and seismic loads, often by employing Conservative assumptions that may result in more steel than necessary. So, the owner may save money on design but pay for it in steel. With design-build, on the other hand, the design-build entity has an incentive to use the Optimum amount of engineering. As long as an additional dollar of engineering will save more than one dollars worth of steel, the design-build contractor will spend the engineering time up To the point of diminishing returns when an additional dollars worth of engineering saves only a Dollar s worth of steel because both the cost of design and the cost of steel come out of the same pocket. This is not to say that design-build results in flimsy or less-safe structures. More (steel, concrete, etc.) is not necessarily better. Simply specifying extra steel or concrete in one place because the engineer does not have the time or incentive to calculate exactly how much is actually required does not improve the over-all performance of the building. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. If the owner wants a building with higher floor Loadings, less floor deflection or resistance to a bigger earthquake than required by code, then The way to achieve this is by placing that requirement on the design-build entity up front not by Hoping that the designer will throw in some extra steel or concrete because he or she does not have time in the budget to use a sharp pencil. F.Reduced Administrative Burden Design-build may reduce the administrative burden on the owner because there is one solicitation, one award and one contract to administer. G. Earlier Cost Visibility The total cost of the project is apparent earlier with design-build. In traditional design-bid-build, Construction costs are not known until bid opening, and it is possible to spend money on a design that the agency cannot afford to build. All too often, construction bids exceed the budget, and the Project must be re-designed to bring it within the budget, thus delaying completion. H. Agency CM with Multi-Prime Contracts One of the advantages of design-build can be achieved by a construction management (CM) to Manage design and over-all project coordination and then contracting directly with several contractors, which are then managed by the CM. Construction project management s services provided by a licensed architect, registered engineer, or licensed general contractor. Under this approach, the early phases of the project (earthwork, site utilities, and foundations) can be placed under contract before design of the building shell and interior is 100 percent complete, and the structural steel and other long lead-time components can be ordered. Then, the contracts for the early phases can be awarded to follow-on contractors. There are two types of construction managers. An agency CM is a consultant to the owner; an agency CM is not in the chain of privity between The owner and the contractor(s) and does not guarantee the cost of the work. An at-risk CM, on the other hand, essentially is a brokering general contractor. The at-risk CM is either in the chain of privity between the owner and the trade contractors or Guarantees that the aggregate price of the contracts will not exceed some maximum figure. Any individual or firm proposing to provide construction project management services shall provide Evidence that the individual or firm and its personnel carrying out onsite responsibilities have Expertise and experience in construction project design review and evaluation, construction Mobilization and supervision, bid evaluation, project scheduling, cost-benefit analysis, claims Review and negotiation, and general management and administration of a construction project. Which type of contract is better for design-build? Most suitable type of contracts is lump sum contract because the owner has essentially assigned all the risks to the contractor, who in turn can be expected to ask for a higher markup in order to take Care of unforeseen contingencies. Beside the fixed lump sum price, other commitments are often made by the contractor in the form of submittals such as a specific schedule, the management reporting system or a quality control Program. If the actual cost of the project is underestimated, the underestimated cost will reduce the Contractor s profit by that amount. An overestimate has an opposite effect, but may reduce the Chance of being a low bidder for the project. The scope of work, the price, the time of performance is already defined. Usually the contractors include allowance for contingencies in their bid price so the price Small and medium projects are most suitable for this kind of project where is the design is easy not Complicated and can be managed by one party. II-disadvantages The potential advantages of design-build do not come without risk. A. Less Control. Under traditional design-bid-build, the owner has full control over the details of the plans and Specifications and does not publish them for bids until it is satisfied that they reflect its Requirements, including functional and aesthetic preferences. With design-build, the owner gives up some of this control. i.e., advancing the level of design through the design development stage (30 percent or so) before award of the design-build contract. Of course, by doing so the owner may give up some of the advantages of design-build. B. Need for Earlier Requirements Definition With design-build, the owner must lock in its requirements much earlier. With traditional design-bid-build, if the owner is a little fuzzy on its functional or aesthetic Requirements, it can clarify them during the design phase after if sees where the designer is heading. But with design-bid-build, post-award programmatic changes can be very expensive and disruptive. C. Recommendation So, if the city (country) rules are not certain what it wants, traditional design-bid-build may be the better alternative. D. Compliance with Subcontractors The Subletting and Subcontracting Fair Practices Act, requires that bidders list their subcontractors with their bids. This can be a problem for a design-build bidder. Without detailed design drawings, the subcontractors cannot precisely estimate costs. But, listing a subcontractor without a firm subcontract price puts the design-build contractor at a disadvantage in subsequently pricing the subcontract work. A listed subcontractor has the prime design-build contractor over the proverbial barrel. This is a manageable problem for a design-build contractor with many of the same type of projects in an Area, as a subcontractor can only get away with gouging the design-build entity once. Parking garages and housing are good examples of where the design-build entities work with a group of subcontractors on a repetitive basis, and subcontractors can estimate their work on a perspace. or.pre-square.foot.basis. Design-build contractor shall search for competitive bids for subcontracts not listed with its prime bid. The problem with this approach is that it depends on specific legislative authorizations that do not apply to the country. Thus, the safest approach may be to require listing of subcontractors at time of bid, even though this may result in either the subcontractors or the prime design-build entity including some contingency and mark-up. E. Payment bonds Generally it is required a payment bond payable by the terms of the contract. However, when the design services and the construction are procured under a single contract, must the payment bond be in the full amount of the design-build contract or only in the amount of the Construction portion? Logically, it would seem that 100 percent of the construction portion would fulfil the intent of the statute.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Blast of War "Boxer, this is flight control. The pattern is full; maintain current heading and set throttle to one-niner-zero." "Copy that Lincoln, one-niner-zero." Lieutenant Erica "Boxer" Swanson reached out to the cockpit console and pressed the button which would lock in her heading. Sitting back in her seat, she slid the throttle lever on her left slowly back until the display on the console counted down to read 190 MPS. With the flick of a switch above her head she turned off her electron shielding, noting the flicker of a greenish light outside her cockpit as the shielding dispersed. The Lieutenant then twisted in her seat to look over her shoulder at the hulk of a space cruiser behind her, the Abraham Lincoln. Slowly the larger ship moved towards her small fighter, swallowing it whole in the gaping hanger bay in its belly. Swanson heard a slight thump as flight crews pulled the fighter down into its docking bay via guidewires. She reached over and disengaged her thrusters and keyed the code to power down her engines and inertial dampener. "Boxer is down, IÃ¢â¬â¢m locked in. Over and out." The lieutenant reached over and flipped off the comm system even as the docking bay gave a slight lurch sideways, pulling her fighter through the airlock and into her fighterÃ¢â¬â¢s docking station. Automatically, the cockpit began to open and the fighterÃ¢â¬â¢s computer powered down as the flight crew took control of the plane. Lieutenant Swanson unbuckled her harness and slipped out of the cockpit, unstrapping and removing her helmet as she climbed down the eight foot ladder to the flight deck. With a nod to the crew chief, Erica slipped her helmet under her arm and began to weave her way through the crowd of deck crews rushing around securing the fighters. She stepped into the lift on the far side of the flight deck, nodding silently to the other pilot already there. The lift doors slid shut silently and the lift began to move through the cruiser. Erica looked over at the other pilot. "Well Spinner, welcome to war." Lieutenant Don "Spinner" Collins turned and studied her for a moment. "I think I liked boredom better." The Colonel stepped up to the podium and gazed around at the assembled pilots. In a booming voice not needing the assistance from the podium microphone, he began to speak. The Blast of War :: Dialogue Essays Creative Writing The Blast of War "Boxer, this is flight control. The pattern is full; maintain current heading and set throttle to one-niner-zero." "Copy that Lincoln, one-niner-zero." Lieutenant Erica "Boxer" Swanson reached out to the cockpit console and pressed the button which would lock in her heading. Sitting back in her seat, she slid the throttle lever on her left slowly back until the display on the console counted down to read 190 MPS. With the flick of a switch above her head she turned off her electron shielding, noting the flicker of a greenish light outside her cockpit as the shielding dispersed. The Lieutenant then twisted in her seat to look over her shoulder at the hulk of a space cruiser behind her, the Abraham Lincoln. Slowly the larger ship moved towards her small fighter, swallowing it whole in the gaping hanger bay in its belly. Swanson heard a slight thump as flight crews pulled the fighter down into its docking bay via guidewires. She reached over and disengaged her thrusters and keyed the code to power down her engines and inertial dampener. "Boxer is down, IÃ¢â¬â¢m locked in. Over and out." The lieutenant reached over and flipped off the comm system even as the docking bay gave a slight lurch sideways, pulling her fighter through the airlock and into her fighterÃ¢â¬â¢s docking station. Automatically, the cockpit began to open and the fighterÃ¢â¬â¢s computer powered down as the flight crew took control of the plane. Lieutenant Swanson unbuckled her harness and slipped out of the cockpit, unstrapping and removing her helmet as she climbed down the eight foot ladder to the flight deck. With a nod to the crew chief, Erica slipped her helmet under her arm and began to weave her way through the crowd of deck crews rushing around securing the fighters. She stepped into the lift on the far side of the flight deck, nodding silently to the other pilot already there. The lift doors slid shut silently and the lift began to move through the cruiser. Erica looked over at the other pilot. "Well Spinner, welcome to war." Lieutenant Don "Spinner" Collins turned and studied her for a moment. "I think I liked boredom better." The Colonel stepped up to the podium and gazed around at the assembled pilots. In a booming voice not needing the assistance from the podium microphone, he began to speak.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Studying the fundamental reasons why the proponents aim to establish a business coffee shopÃ¢â¬â¢. A coffee shop or cafeteria businesses are already popular worldwide, too many names, establishment and products. Almost every coffee shop businesses stay long because of satisfying income. How about innovation to this business that have a risk but can probably maximize profit. Mobile coffee shops that acquired equipments that almost within a vehicle that travels to different places is definitely unique and new thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it is feasible. The proponents are aiming to study the reasons this business should be implemented and figured out a solution to all the problems that may encounter to the research. These are some reasons and problems: 1. An innovation should have a perfect research before implementing and it is bit difficult to introduce to the mass market. 2. Risky is involved because it can easily bump by other cars that it may destroy the vehicle full of machineries and high value assets and equipment that can probably explode. 3. Implementing is one of the hardest part because it has a lot of process and there were only few high-ways to trip, also it has limited places to go like traveling at the urban areas and primary highways. 4. Supply of coffee beans can be also limited, Benguet, the province itself produce supply of resources wherein the harvest is by season. 5. The weather of course can cause the profit loss especially here in Benguet where rainy season is mostly half-year. I. Project Summary I. 1 NAME OF THE BUSINESS Ã¢â¬Å" Clique Mobile Cafe Clique is the proposed name of the business because itÃ¢â¬â¢s a converted vehicle that in just one click it is transformed into a business mobile and it has Wi-Fi. In addition, Ã¢â¬ËmobileÃ¢â¬â¢, as the word itself, it can travel to one place to another while the mobile itself is the kitchen. I. 2 BUSINESS LOGO I. 3 LOCATION Burnham Park Baguio City, Benguet I. 4 DESCRIPTIVE DEFINITION OF THE PROJECT Clique Cafe is a coffee shop that serves not only beverages but includes food, bread and pastry products. It has small kitchen, machineries in making coffee and pastry products and a small portable comfort room. The dining is an open area just outside around the vehicle wherein all the tables and chairs are portable including the tabernacles and tent that covers the place. It has a dimension of 21ft x 9ft x 9ft. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a food and beverage business which the main product is coffee. It travels to different places where people usually hang-out. Clique Cafe serves some beverages such as herbal tea, hot and cold Choco coffee. I. 5 VISION AND MISSION Vision: We aim to travel nationwide to provide the best quality coffee and bread for breakfast in every Filipino household that can purchase our most affordable product. We intend to promote tourism and make our own trademark name of coffee product that positions ourselves as premier coffee shop nationwide. Mission: To provide the best quality and most satisfying offer product with high standard services. To continuously promote teamwork and excellence in our establishment and provide a good environmental relationship between our employees and customers. I. 6 Objective There are two main products we aim to provide to our market. Our cafe will establish the commonly used style of coffee which is serving coffee and bread. But we want to make name for our own product. We aim in making our very own unique taste for our products that our market would want to have. We strongly believe that this would be possible by the aid of using indigenous raw product we have in Baguio. Being a city located in the Benguet Province, the province mainly produces harvest of coffee beans that have quality which can compete with its own flavor. This flavor is what we want to introduce in the mass market. The Province also is the main provider of fresh vegetables and fruits that our cafe can make use of in producing breads. We will able to make recipes from these indigenous products. These are the product that Clique Mobile Cafe would be proud of and carry under its brand. Clique Mobile Cafe goal is to satisfy our customer by the unique products with the very best of goods and services that we can offer. And we want our business and product will known all over the world. I. 7 History Ã¢â¬ ¢Coffee History The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the thirteenth century with a number of myths surrounding its first use. The original native population of coffee is thought to have come from East Africa specifically to Ethiopia, and it was first cultivated by Arabs from the 14th century. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen. By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to the Balkans, Italy and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia and then to the Americas. Ã¢â¬ ¢Coffee shop History Coffeehouse and coffee shop are related terms for an establishment which primarily serves prepared coffee and other hot beverages. Cafe or cafe or c aff may refer to a coffeehouse, bar, tea room, small and cheap restaurant, transport cafe, or other casual eating and drinking place, depending on the culture. A coffeehouse may share some of the same characteristics of a bar or restaurant, but it is different from a c afeteria. As the name suggests, coffeehouses focus on providing c offee and tea as well as light snacks. Many coffee houses in the Middle East, and in West Asian immigrant districts in the Western world, offer shisha (nargile in Turkish and Greek), flavored tobacco smoked through a hookah. Espresso barsare a type of coffeehouse that specializes in serving espresso and espresso-based drinks. II. MANAGEMENT ASPECT BUSINESS ORGANIZATION A business organization is an individual or group of people that collaborate to achieve certain commercial goals. Some business organizations are formed to earn income for owners. Other business organizations, called nonprofits, are formed for public purposes. These businesses often raise money and utilize other resources to provide or support public programs. 2. 1 Partnership Partnership is a business organization in which two or more individuals manage and operate the business. Both owners are equally and personally liable for the debts from the business. Therefore the proponents will adopt the Partnership form of business. The proponents chose partnership because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not big and broad as a corporation and the capital is lesser than a larger business. The proposed project is easily managed by two or more people or the owners itself. ?Rules and Guidelines of Partnership One of the potential drawbacks of a partnership is that the other partners are bound to contracts signed by each other on behalf of the partnership. Choosing partners you can trust, and who are savvy, is critical. Ã¢â¬ ¢Making Money Making money is the first rule because it is the biggest impetus for any deal. The deals that actually get done are the ones that can prove their worth. Companies often have a minimum monetary threshold, but if you can prove that a lucrative alliance can be made, then you should be in discussion about working together. Ã¢â¬ ¢Naming Business Naming business partnership is actually a very important step in creating partnership agreement because it formally establishes the business entity for legal purposes. All documents referring to the partnership should use the partnershipÃ¢â¬â¢s name, once you and your business partners register it. Ã¢â¬ ¢Contribution to Partnership A partnership agreement must include the capital or property each of the partners is investing in the company. The agreement should also include what roles each partner will be performing when the business is operational, including managerial capacities and who controls the day-to-day operation of the business. The partners dedicate resources such as financial, technical, staff and reputational toward achieving agreed objectives over time. They also establish a new organization with shared governance and a management unit to deliver these activities. Partners donÃ¢â¬â¢t draw a salary and share profits and losses equally. Partners have a duty of loyalty to the other partners and must not enrich themselves at the expense of the partnership, and also have a duty to provide financial accounting to the other partners. Ã¢â¬ ¢Allocating Profits and Losses Allocating profits and losses is a key element of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s partnership agreement. This section of agreement determines how much money each partner stands to make, including what percentage of profit each member may receive, as well as what percentage of business losses each partner must absorb. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s usually illegal to create a partnership agreement that assigns a higher percentage liability to a partner than the partner originally invested in the company. Keeping responsibility for losses commensurate with each partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s percentage investment should preserve the legal integrity of the document. Ã¢â¬ ¢Determining Partnership Authority Without specific language detailing each partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s authority in the business, any partner can force the entire company into a binding legal agreement without the consent of your other partners. Clearly defining each partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s power within the company to enter into binding agreements keeps the partnership from spreading itself too thin and making bad business decisions. This rule can also put a system in place for the partnership to make business decisions, including rules on voting and obtaining partner consent. The other rules would be found in a written partnership agreement. Such an agreement could outline procedures for making major business decisions, how profits and losses will be split, and how much control each partner maintains. 2. 2 Owner of the Business Clique mobile cafe is owned by Mr. John Ericson P. Amistad and Ahldrin L. Abellera. 2. 3 Organizational Chart MANAGER BARISTA BAKING CHEF SOUSE CHEF CASHIER WAITER/WAITRESS MAINTENANCE.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Case Study 1 Based on the patients physical exam, social activities, family history, recent laboratory results and imaging; from a nurse practitioner stand point I am concerned that the patient has coronary artery disease, new onset of congestive heart failure, as well as concerns that the patient may be suffering from depression. Mr. E. W. is an obese African-American male and has uncontrolled hypertension. Given Mr. E. WÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnicity, obesity and uncontrolled hypertension he is a likely candidate for coronary artery disease. The patient also presents with an ejection fraction of 46% and a prominent S3 sound upon auscultation. These findings are indicative of congestive heart failure. I am also concerned about the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological well-being. The patient openly admits to drinking Ã¢â¬Å"several beers every evening to relax,Ã¢â¬ and is said to be a widower who lives alone. The patient also admitted to not speaking to his daughter for the past 4 years after she moved out wit h her aunt. These are signs and symptoms of depression coupled with poor coping strategies from tragic life events (CDEM Curriculum). Although there is a multitude of pre-existing as well as new medical conditions that are concerning, my focus during this annual check-up is the laboratory findings that are indicative of coronary artery disease (CAD). This is concerning because the patient has extensive nonmodifiable and modifiable risk factors for CAD. Nonmodifiable risk factors include that he is a male,Show MoreRelatedhkjhjh1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconnections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of each culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. 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Only curriculum activities are not enough for handling the real business environment, so it is necessary to get the better knowledge about the real scenario. The report is a requirement of the internship program for my MBA Degree. Conduction of Internship/ Dissertation startedRead MorePsychology Ncert Book 1 Chapter Notes11190 Words Ã |Ã 45 Pagesdisciplines, and professions, and appreciate the value of psychology in daily life to help you understand yourself and others better. Contents Introduction What is Psychology? Psychology as a Discipline Psychology as a Natural Science Psychology as a Social Science Understanding Mind and Behaviour Popular Notions about the Discipline of Psychology Evolution of Psychology Some Interesting Landmarks in the Evolution of Modern Psychology (Box 1.1) Development of Psychology in India Branches of PsychologyRead MoreCase Study on Hypokalemia8797 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in NCM 105 A Case Study on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus December 2010 Table of Contents AcknowledgementÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 3 ObjectiveÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 4 Scope and Limitations............................. 5 IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 6 Review of Related LiteratureÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 7-8 Case AnalysisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 9 Health HistoryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. 10 Family GenogramÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 11 Anatomy and PhysiologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 12-13 PathophysiologyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ 14-17 Nursing Assessment ToolÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Read MoreDescription Of An Example Of A Presentation8050 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pagesdevelopmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life. The result of neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism and its associated behaviors have been estimated to occur in as many as 1 in 500 individuals (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997). Autism is four times more prevalent in boys than girls and knows no racial, ethnic, or social boundaries. Family income, lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autismÃ¢â¬â¢s occurrenceRead MoreCommunity Acquired Pneumonia18251 Words Ã |Ã 74 Pagesabuse are all risk factors for having CAP. (Schmitt, 2011) Several tests can be performed to identify the cause of an individual s CAP.Ã X-raysÃ of the chest, examination of theÃ bloodÃ andÃ sputumÃ for infectiousÃ microorganisms, andÃ blood testsÃ are commonly used to diagnose individuals with suspected CAP based upon symptoms and physical examination. (Smeltzer, 2004) Most cases of pneumonia generally run an uncomplicated course. Complications may include the following: pleurisy, pleural effusion, atelectasis