Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Case of DNA, Forensic Evidence, and Prosecution Essay

The Case of DNA, Forensic Evidence, and Prosecution - Essay Example The research focuses on one specific case and discusses the usage of forensic techniques involved with prosecuting and convicting an offender. The science of forensic investigation has become a highly popular tool in law enforcement in today's time. It has proven to be useful in sometimes locating evidence that proves the innocence of those thought to have committed a crime. Also it works to prosecute those who are irrefutably guilty of committing violent and criminal acts against other human beings. Although offenders might go free for a certain period of time, forensic techniques are gradually minimizing those possibilities of getting away and remaining free once a crime has been committed. For instance, one stray hair or a cigarette butt with a lip imprint left on it can be the clue law enforcement needs to apprehend a possible suspect in relation to a murder, rape, burglary, or possible other heinous act against those in society. In fact, some researchers state that forensic science has made all the difference in how the criminal system now works in the United States. DNA data banks are worthy tools in legal investigations due to the fact that if a previous offender commits another crime and gets away, the forensic evidence can be analyzed and compared to information stored in the DNA data banks. Often times this hurries the process along and provides the necessary means to apprehend a previous convicted criminal of a serious crime against another (Office of Forensic Services 2006). For instance, in the case where a young financial analyst was on her way to work, she was confirmed to have been abducted and dragged into a freight elevator where she was raped and brutally beaten, possibly left for dead as well. However, the victim bit her offender and the blood that was left behind on her jacket enabled investigators to pinpoint the person responsible for the crime. Often time's forensic evidence such as this is what it takes to apprehend a suspect. Normally it is the inclusion of skin and hair fibers that are found under the victims fingernails th at normally lead to the conviction of a known violent suspect (Office of Forensic Services 2006). The reason that forensic techniques are highly useful is that they do provide the irrefutable proof of who committed a crime. Now this can't always be 100% for a certainty as there have been some cases that have been overturned. However 99.9% of the time this type of DNA evidence provides the validity needed, as well as the burden of proof that the justice system is looking for to seal a conviction against a violent offender (Office of Forensic Services 2006). Another similar case that utilized forensic evidence was one where an offender actually had a soda in the home he was burglarizing. He went so far as to use a straw which left a good lip imprint. This one small mistake by Angelo Powell, who had a long train of burglaries in behind him lead to his arrest and conviction (Office of Forensic Services 2006). His DNA was taken from the soda bottle he left at the scene of the crime and compared to the stored information in the

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Cache Memory Plays A Lead Role Information Technology Essay

Cache Memory Plays A Lead Role Information Technology Essay Answer: Cache (prominent and pronounced as cash) memory is enormously and extremely fast memory that is built into a computers central processing unit (CPU) or located next to it on a separate chip. The CPU uses cache memory to store instructions that are repeatedly required to run programs, improving overall system speed. It helps CPU to accessing for frequently or recently accessed data. C:UsersraushanPicturespage36-1.jpg References: Reason for Cache Memory: There are various reasons for using Cache in the computer some of the reason is mentioning following. The RAM is comparatively very slow as compared to System CPU and it is also far from the CPU (connected through Bus), so there is need to add another small size memory which is very near to the CPU and also very fast so that the CPU will not remain in deadlock mode while it waiting resources from main memory. this memory is known as Cache memory. This is also a RAM but is very high speed as compare to Primary memory i.e. RAM. In Speed CPU works in femto or nano seconds the distance also plays a major role in case of performance. Cache memory is designed to supply the CPU with the most frequently requested data and instructions. Because retrieving data from cache takes a fraction of the time that it takes to access it from main memory, having cache memory can save a lot of time. Whenever we work on more than one application. This cache memory is use to keep control and locate the running application within fraction of nano seconds. It enhances performance capability of the system. Cache memory directly communicates with the processor. It is used preventing mismatch between processor and memory while switching from one application two another instantaneously whenever needed by user. It keeps track of all currently working applications and their currently used resources. For example, a web browser stores newly visited web pages in a cache directory, so that we can return promptly to the page without requesting it from the original server. When we strike the Reload button, browser compares the cached page with the current page out on the network, and updates our local version if required. References: 1. 2. 3. How Cache Works? Answer: The cache is programmed (in hardware) to hold recently-accessed memory locations in case they are needed again. So, each of these instructions will be saved in the cache after being loaded from memory the first time. The next time the processor wants to use the same instruction, it will check the cache first, see that the instruction it needs is there, and load it from cache instead of going to the slower system RAM. The number of instructions that can be buffered this way is a function of the size and design of the cache. The details of how cache memory works vary depending on the different cache controllers and processors, so I wont describe the exact details. In general, though, cache memory works by attempting to predict which memory the processor is going to need next, and loading that memory before the processor needs it, and saving the results after the processor is done with it. Whenever the byte at a given memory address is needed to be read, the processor attempts to get the data from the cache memory. If the cache doesnt have that data, the processor is halted while it is loaded from main memory into the cache. At that time memory around the required data is also loaded into the cache. When data is loaded from main memory to the cache, it will have to replace something that is already in the cache. So, when this happens, the cache determines if the memory that is going to be replaced has changed. If it has, it first saves the changes to main memory, and then loads the new data. The cache sys tem doesnt worry about data structures at all, but rather whether a given address in main memory is in the cache or not. In fact, if you are familiar with virtual memory where the hard drive is used to make it appear like a computer has more RAM than it really does, the cache memory is similar. Lets take a library as an example o how caching works. Imagine a large library but with only one librarian (the standard one CPU setup). The first person comes into the library and asks for A CSA book (By IRV Englander). The librarian goes off follows the path to the bookshelves (Memory Bus) retrieves the book and gives it to the person. The book is returned to the library once its finished with. Now without cache the book would be returned to the shelf. When the next person arrives and asks for CSA book (By IRV Englander), the same process happens and takes the same amount of time. Cache memory is like a hot list of instructions needed by the CPU. The memory manager saves in cache each instruction the CPU needs; each time the CPU gets an instruction it needs from cache that instruction moves to the top of the hot list. When cache is filled and the CPU calls for a new instruction, the system overwrites the data in cache that hasnt been used for the longest period of time. This way, the high priority information thats used continuously stays in cache, while the less frequently used information drops out after an Interval. Its similar to when u access a program frequently the program is listed on the start menu here need not have to find the program from the list on all programs u simply open the start menu and click on the program listed there, doesnt this saves Your time. Working of cache Pentium 4: Pentium 4: L1 cache (8k bytes, 64 byte lines, Four ways set associative) L2 cache (256k,128 byte lines,8 way set associative) References: Levels of Cache Level 1 Cache (L1): The Level 1 cache, or primary cache, is on the CPU and is used for temporary storage of instructions and data organised in blocks of 32 bytes. Primary cache is the fastest form of storage. Because its built in to the chip with a zero wait-state (delay) interface to the processors execution unit, it is limited in size. Level 1 cache is implemented using Static RAM (SRAM) and until recently was traditionally 16KB in size. SRAM uses two transistors per bit and can hold data without external assistance, for as long as power is supplied to the circuit. The second transistor controls the output of the first: a circuit known as a flip-flop so-called because it has two stable states which it can flip between. This is contrasted to dynamic RAM (DRAM), which must be refreshed many times per second in order to hold its data contents. Intels P55 MMX processor, launched at the start of 1997, was noteworthy for the increase in size of its Level 1 cache to 32KB. The AMD K6 and Cyrix M2 chips launched later that year upped the ante further by providing Level 1 caches of 64KB. 64Kb has remained the standard L1 cache size, though various multiple-core processors may utilise it differently. For all L1 cache designs the control logic of the primary cache keeps the most frequently used data and code in the cache and updates external memory only when the CPU hands over control to other bus masters, or during direct memory access by peripherals such as optical drives and sound cards. ever_s1 Level 2 Cache (L2): Most PCs are offered with a Level 2 cache to bridge the processor/memory performance gap. Level 2 cache also referred to as secondary cache) uses the same control logic as Level 1 cache and is also implemented in SRAM. Level 2 caches typically comes in two sizes, 256KB or 512KB, and can be found, or soldered onto the motherboard, in a Card Edge Low Profile (CELP) socket or, more recently, on a COAST module. The latter resembles a SIMM but is a little shorter and plugs into a COAST socket, which is normally located close to the processor and resembles a PCI expansion slot. The aim of the Level 2 cache is to supply stored information to the processor without any delay (wait-state). For this purpose, the bus interface of the processor has a special transfer protocol called burst mode. A burst cycle consists of four data transfers where only the addresses of the first 64 are output on the address bus. The most common Level 2 cache is synchronous pipeline burst. To have a synchronous cache a chipset, such as Triton, is required to support it. It can provide a 3-5% increase in PC performance because it is timed to a clock cycle. This is achieved by use of specialised SRAM technology which has been develo ped to allow zero wait-state access for consecutive burst read cycles. There is also asynchronous cache, which is cheaper and slower because it isnt timed to a clock cycle. With asynchronous SRAM, available in speeds between 12 and 20ns, ( 976 (picture) L3 cache Level 3 cache is something of a luxury item. Often only high end workstations and servers need L3 cache. Currently for consumers only the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition even features L3 cache. L3 has been both on-die, meaning part of the CPU or external meaning mounted near the CPU on the motherboard. It comes in many sizes and speeds. The point of cache is to keep the processor pipeline fed with data. CPU cores are typically the fastest part in the computer. As a result cache is used to pre-read or store frequently used instructions and data for quick access. Cache acts as a high speed buffer memory to more quickly provide the CPU with data. So, the concept of CPU cache leveling is one of performance optimization for the processor.,2845,1517372,00.asp The image below shows the complete cache hierarchy of the Shanghai processor. Barcelona also has a similar hierarchy except that it only has 2MB of L3 cache. L3_Cache_Architecture (picture) Cache Memory Organisation In a modern microprocessor several caches are found. They not only vary in size and functionality, but also their internal organization is typically different across the caches. Instruction Cache The instruction cache is used to store instructions. This helps to reduce the cost of going to memory to fetch instructions. The instruction cache regularly holds several other things, like branch prediction information. In certain cases, this cache can even perform some limited operation(s). The instruction cache on UltraSPARC, for example, also pre-decodes the incoming instruction. Data Cache A data cache is a fast buffer that contains the application data. Before the processor can operate on the data, it must be loaded from memory into the data cache. The element needed is then loaded from the cache line into a register and the instruction using this value can operate on it. The resultant value of the instruction is also stored in a register. The register contents are then stored back into the data cache. Eventually the cache line that this element is part of is copied back into the main memory. In some cases, the cache can be bypassed and data is stored into the registers directly. TLB Cache Translating a virtual page address to a valid physical address is rather costly. The TLB is a cache to store these translated addresses. Each entry in the TLB maps to an entire virtual memory page. The CPU can only operate on data and instructions that are mapped into the TLB. If this mapping is not present, the system has to re-create it, which is a relatively costly operation. The larger a page, the more effective capacity the TLB has. If an application does not make good use of the TLB (for example, random memory access) increasing the size of the page can be beneficial for performance, allowing for a bigger part of the address space to be mapped into the TLB. Some microprocessors, including UltraSPARC, implement two TLBs. One for pages containing instructions (I-TLB) and one for data pages (D-TLB). An Example of a typical cache organization is shown below: Cache Memory Principles à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Small amount of fast memory à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Placed between the processor and main memory à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Located either on the processor chip or on a separate module Cache Operation Overview Processor requests the contents of some memory location The cache is checked for the requested data If found, the requested word is delivered to the processor If not found, a block of main memory is first read into the cache, then therequested word is delivered to the processor When a block of data is fetched into the cache to satisfy a single memory reference, it is likely that there will be future references to that same memory location or to other words in the block locality or reference rule. Each block has a tag added to recognize it. Mapping Function An algorithm is needed to map main memory blocks into cache lines. A method is needed to determine which main memory block occupies a cache line. There are three techniques used: Direct Fully Associative Set Associative Direct Mapping: Direct mapped is a simple and efficient organization. The (virtual or physical) memory address of the incoming cache line controls which cache location is going to be used. Implementing this organization is straightforward and is relatively easy to make it scale with the processor clock. In a direct mapped organization, the replacement policy is built-in because cache line replacement is controlled by the (virtual or physical) memory address. Direct mapping assigned each memory block to a specific line in the cache. If a line is all ready taken up by a memory block when a new block needs to be loaded, the old block is trashed. The figure below shows how multiple blocks are mapped to the same line in the cache. This line is the only line that each of these blocks can be sent to. In the case of this figure, there are 8 bits in the block identification portion of the memory address. Consider a simple example-a 4-kilobyte cache with a line size of 32 bytes direct mapped on virtual addresses. Thus each load/store to cache moves 32 bytes. If one variable of type float takes 4 bytes on our system, each cache line will hold eight (32/4=8) such variables. The address for this broken down something like the following: Tag 8 bits identifying line in cache word id bits Direct mapping is simple and inexpensive to implement, but if a program accesses 2 blocks that map to the same line repeatedly, the cache begins to thrash back and forth reloading the line over and over again meaning misses are very high. Fully Associative: The fully associative cache design solves the potential problem of thrashing with a direct-mapped cache. The replacement policy is no longer a function of the memory address, but considers usage instead. With this design, typically the oldest cache line is evicted from the cache. This policy is called least recently used (LRU). In the previous example, LRU prevents the cache lines of a and b from being moved out prematurely. The downside of a fully associative design is cost. Additional logic is required to track usage of lines. The larger the cache size, the higher the cost. Therefore, it is difficult to scale this technology to very large (data) caches. Luckily, a good alternative exists. The address is broken into two parts: a tag used to identify which block is stored in which line of the cache (s bits) and a fixed number of LSB bits identifying the word within the blocks.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tag  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   word id bits Set Associative: Set associative addresses the problem of possible thrashing in the direct mapping method. It does this by saying that instead of having exactly one line that a block can map to in the cache, we will group a few lines together creating a set. Then a block in memory can map to any one of the lines of a specific set. There is still only one set that the block can map to.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tag  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   word id bits

Friday, October 25, 2019

Buddhism 4 :: essays research papers

Buddhism was founded by Saddharrha Gautama. He discovered soon after that the mind was the most important aspect of human existence. In Gautama’s believe he believed: “Our mind is like mercury. It is also like a monkey who is struggling all the time to free himself. When he is pulled back, he may stay still for a little while, but a moment later, he will try to move away again.'; In his belief’s he believed that man needed to pull back and control our minds frequently, otherwise it will not remain still and it will wander away according to its emotions. The mind will follow whatever arises in it when there is nothing to discipline and tie it down. We must have mental training to stop its wandering.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  So meditation is the tool to tie up ones mind. It will cultivate mindfulness which is the foundation of the practice. Concentration stills the mind and reduces impulses and emotions. Its the same as tying the rope around a post and then tying the money to it. It does not matter how much the monkey struggles, he will have to stay within the limits of his bounds. As he is tied with the rope, he can only go back to the same spot again. The only chance for him to stop is when he is exhausted.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When we fallow the movement of our mind, it is like watching the monkey. We do not have to become the animal, we just sit and watch him. Stay still, do not struggle like him. If we struggle like him, we will turn into a monkey and will become really exhausted.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To practice Concentration is like looking at the monkey. In the process of watching, he will go round and round until the rope is so tight that he is bound up. In the end he will have to stop and sit still. The monkey also knows that it is time to stop when the rope is so tight that it strangles him. The movement of our mind is very similar, so if we keep on meditating in order to observe it (the mind), then it is like watching the monkeywithout behaving like the monkey. If we act like the monkey by creating thoughts, we will be exhausted by our meditation because the mind never stops. We have to be in control at the post where mindfulness and concentration are.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Judging on Apperance

Justin Tipton What is the first thing we do when meeting a first. We judge! Judging someone based on their appearance is an inherent human instinct. Many times when people judge a person, people end up making wrong decisions. We create mental images in our minds that categories people based upon their appearance. When you see a man in a suit, tie, and a briefcase you figure is a lawyer, professor, or a businessman. In reality the guy that you see could have been out for a special event and could be no more than a car mechanic. We base our opinions on perceptions on people based upon what we can biologically see with our eyes.In her article how the eye works Ker Than explain how we use our eyes to visually see things. â€Å"Vision begin when lights rays are reflected off an object and enter the eyes through the cornea, The transparent outer covering of the eyes. The cornea refracts the rays that pass through a round hole, called the pupil. The Irish is the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil, and then become larger or smaller to regulate the amount of light passing through. The rays then travel through the lenses to the retina at the back of the eye. The retina conducts light into electrical impulses.The optic nerve sends impulses to the brain where a visual image or perception is produced. † We use our eye to visually see people, and to make an array of judgment about that person based on what we see. While it’s true we can come times tell certain thing about people by looking at their external appearance, it is not the best of measurements. I believe people should not judge people by their external appearance, and should at least speak with a person before making a judgment. You can’t judge a person character base on appearance and that why many of us make unfair and bias assumption of others.People sometimes change their appearance to fit different situations. According to a Washington post article, Joshua bell one of the world greatest violinists set out to do an experiment to test people’s perception on appearance. By most, he was nondescript: a youngish white man in jeans, a long sleeved t-shirt and Washington National baseball cap. He positioned himself against a wall beside a trash basket, from a case; he moved his violin and began to play. It was a Friday and the middle of morning rush hour. The violinist played for nearly an hour, and performed six classical pieces.Nearly 1,100 people passed by, many of them on their way to work. No one knew it, but the fiddler standing against a bare wall outside was one of the finest classical musicians in the world, playing some of the most elegant music ever written on one of the most valuable violins ever made. In the hour that Joshua Bell played, seven people stooped what they were doing to hang around and take in the performance, at least for minute. Twenty-seven gave money, for a total of thirty-two dollars and seventeen cents. That means over 1 ,070 people passed on by, with few even turning to look.Three days before conducting this experiment on a street corner in Washington, Joshua bell filled the house at Boston’s stately symphony Hall, where the average seat went for one-hundred dollars. the appearance of a guy in plain clothes playing a violin at the street corner, made many people ignore his sound before ever even taking the time to listen. Many times people judge what they see, and ignore the beauty that right in front of their face. To begin with, someone external appearance is not mirror of one’s inner self. I can relate to from examples in my own life.Being a young African-American male, growing up near Memphis one of Americas most dangerous cities. I came from a poorer family, I been working full time since attending college. In the day time I was a college student, but at work I was a normal sweaty and dirty factory worker. When people saw me at work, they assumed I was uneducated and not very int elligent. In reality, I was a good academic student, has a good reputation among my fellow students and professors. My co-workers couldn’t see the college side of me, and many of my fellow students couldn’t see working in a factory which was known for harsh working conditions.Since leaving the factory, I know have a security job just outside of downtown Nashville. TRICOR is the name of the corporation is profits in the million, by utilizing inmates for production and paying their cheap labor wages. This cooperation is ran by your typical CEO, a short old white man, that dresses in suits and ties and owns many expenses vehicles. For many months while working there, he passed by me every day and never once he even acknowledging my presence. One day I was reading a book about written from a famous entrepreneur, and the boom caught the eye of the CEO.He walked up to me and asked why I reading a book like that, I told I was a college student that was a business major, and t hat it has beneficial information in this nook, and that I read many book from this author. He then brought to my attention that he has read the same book and he too was a fan of the author books. After conversation for a few minutes he then brought to my attention that he too grew up from a poor family, and that he also work at a factory and once at a security job while too attending college. I am a business management major and he too has a degree in business management .Ever since that day of our conversation he speak to me daily, and we hold brief but interesting conversation often. Prior to that conversation we had never spoken to another, once we looked past the external appearance, we realized we two men who shared many things in common. You may not realize it, but perception based on appearance happen all the time. Studies show that fifty-five percent of opinion of a person is based upon physical appearance, and that it takes around fifteen second for a person to realize if he or she like your or not, or want to do business with you.Do honestly we feel like we get accurate of someone inner self with over half of what we perceive come from appearance, and while only judging them for one-fourth of a minute? Many people believe that judging people on the appearance is beneficial and effective. Mangers often use appearance as a asset while evaluating a candidate for a job. You could have two good candidates with impressive resume, but choosing a candidate based on race, or which dressed too me is ineffective. In reality just because one candidate is dressed better, doesn’t make him any smarter or better qualified than the other.When it comes to judging a lover or friend, external appearance shouldn’t be a factor on your judgment about that person. Much time we see that a man or women date someone because she is beautiful and he is handsome. In high school and college you see on many occasions when someone hangs around a certain person because it will increase his/her popularity. In a poem I once read it state â€Å"we see best when we look for the less†. In just a few words, that poem speaks a lot, we see the best when look past the artificial obvious, and see the beauty that deep within a person.Beauty and the Beast just a fairy tale and a kid’s story but moral of this tale has such a deeper meaning. The story about a beautiful women falling in love with an ugly beast, passed artificial obvious and see the beauty that lied deep within him. Making a judgment on some based only external appearance is an unfair and accurate judgment of someone. It is not accurate to judge someone based on we biologically see wit our eyes. A appearance can adjust and change their appearance to fit many different situation where there true selves do not show, but a person cannot change his/her character.For these reason, it is important to get to know someone before making a judgment. â€Å"The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or touched†. â€Å"But must be felt by the heart†. The best and most beautiful things in people cannot be seen by the eyes. Judging someone on external appearance is an inherent and instinct that happen almost instantaneously. We as people have the ability to control our judgment, we have the ability to use our minds to see more within people than what we see with our eyes.Stero-typing is something we do without even noticing, but placing people into different categories based on external appearance limits our ability to meet new people. Sometimes the people that we expect knot to have anything in common with, could be a totally false assumption. If we allow ourselves to judge and meet people of different culture, many would be surprised to know they share many things in common with people they would have never suspected. As long as people allow ourselves to be blinded by external appearance then we will fully see the inner beauty within so m any people.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Mobilization of Deposits

Topic: â€Å"Mobilization of deposits in banking system of Pakistan† Submitted to: Ma’am Bushra Submitted by: Muhammad Mumtaz (09-arid-929) Tayyab Sultan (08-arid-387) Muhammad Sohail Zafar (09-arid-934) Farhan Ahmed (08-arid-402) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks to Almighty ALLAH who had made us able to complete this project with the true knowledge. Special thanks are due to our respected teacher Ma’am Bushra Zulfiqar who have shown us the right way to go for our project to success and enlightened our mind with the tips and guidance to think creatively.We are thankful to our friends, who help us a lot during this course of project. Table of content: 1) Deposit——————————————————————————-4 2) Current Accounts——————————— ———————————-4 3) HBL Freedom Account————————————————————4 4) HBL Business ValueAccount—————————————————-4 5) Term Accounts———————————————————————-5 6) HBL Advantage Account———————————————————-5 7) Investment Plus Deposit————————— —————————â €”–5 8) Savings Accounts————————————————– —————–5 9) PLS – Savings Account————————————————————-6 10) Remittance Munafa Plus Savings Account—————————————6 11) Foreign Currency Accounts———————————————————7 12) Mobilization of deposits————————————————————-8 13) HBL Car Loan—————â⠂¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€ ——————8 14) HBL Car To Car———————————————————————–9 15) HBL Credit Card———————————————————————10 16) HBL Home Loan———————————————————————11 17) HBL INVESTMENT BANKING———————————– ————–13 18) HBL Zarai Banking————â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€14 19) MCB Islamic banking——————————————————- ——–17 20) Al-Makhraj Saving Account————————————————— —–17 21) IANAT Account———————————————————————–18 22) Al Makhraj Term Deposit————————————————————20 23) Ijarah———————†”————————————————————20 24) Murabahah——————————————————————– ———-21 25) Diminishing Musharika Equipment————————————————-21 Abstract: Banks generally adopt following strategies to mobilize their Deposits in two categories 1-  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Demand Deposits which are payable to the owner on demand i. e Savings Accounts Current Account etc. 2-  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Time Deposits.These are Fixed Deposit for various tenors ranging from month to 10 years and are payable at maturity. * Banks accept Deposits from institutions like Government institution s, public ltd and Private limited companies and Trusts etc. * Banks accept Deposits from general public by launching various Deposit schemes catering the needs of every segment of society and offer attractive Profit rates on these schemes. * For example HBL offers HBL Money club Account to kids up to the age of 18 and offer ATM Card (with restricted Limit) and attractive Profit Rates up to 7. 55% to attract the youngsters who will subsequently prefer to maintain their Account with HBL till life time. For Businessmen who frequently transfer money to and from their Accounts to make their business payments HBL offers Freedom Account in which they can make Drafts of unlimited Number and amount and free online funds transfer by maintaining minimum daily balance of Rs. 25,000. 00/- only. This strategy attracts huge numbers of businessmen to HBL which has competitive advantage of largest Network of branches in every city of Pakistan with online facility. * For customers mostly businessmen who want profit on daily basis HBL Offers HBL Daily Progressive Account on which profit is calculated on daily basis and credited into customers Accounts at month end. * Similarly to encourage the remittances by expatriates through banking channels HBL offers RMPA Remittance Plus Munafa Accounts. * HBL mobilizes its deposits in the form of investments in projects and give loan to corporations as well as to the consumer.HABIB BANK LIMITED: DEPOSITS: There are different types of deposits account. Current Accounts: Make unlimited transactions while maintaining a low minimum balance every month. Current Account of HBL: * Minimum balance of Rs. 5,000 * Unlimited transactions * Non-profit bearing * HBL Debit Card and Inter Branch Transaction System (IBTS) facilities * Funds transfer to any bank through HBL Phone Banking Basic Banking Account (BBA): * Can be opened with only Rs. 1,000 * No minimum balance requirement * Up to 2 withdrawal and 2 deposit transactions free every month * Unlimi ted withdrawals through HBL Debit Card * Non-profit bearing HBL Freedom Account:Use your money as you please with HBL Freedom Account. Rest free from worries and expand your business with unmatched accessibility. HBL Business Value Account: * No minimum balance requirement * HBL Debit Card and Inter Branch Transaction System (IBTS) facilities * Unique transactional account for Businessmen * Up to 10 Bankers Cheques free (at minimum balance of Rs. 500,000) * Profit calculated daily, paid every quarter * Up to 5. 35% profit per annum * Funds transfer to any bank through HBL Phone Banking. * Nominal monthly maintenance charge of Rs. 50 Term Accounts: Invest your savings in our term deposits for a fixed duration and earn profit while keeping your savings secure.HBL Advantage Account: | | |   | | | | | | | | | Term| Profit per annum| 1 Year | | 12. 00%| | 3 Year | | 14. 00%| | 5 Year | | 15. 00%| | 10 Year | | 18. 00%| | | | |   | †¢ | Multiple options for tenure and profit payo ut. | †¢| Loan facility up to 90% of investment. | †¢| Minimum investment of Rs. 25,000. | †¢| Withdrawal at end of fixed term. | Investment Plus Deposit: * Profit paid at maturity * Minimum investment of Rs. 20 million| * Multiple options for tenure and profit payout| * Withdrawal at end of fixed term * Account for Institutions| Savings Accounts: Avail the flexibility of making transactions while earning profit on daily/monthly basis.HBL Value Account: * 7. 19% profit per annum| * Profit calculated monthly, paid every quarter| * Deposit ranges from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 1,000,000| * Two withdrawals free every month| PLS – Savings Account: * 5. 06% profit per annum| * Profit paid bi-annually| * HBL Debit Card and Inter Branch Transaction System (IBTS) facilities| * Funds transfer to any bank through HBL Phone Banking| * Minimum balance of Rs. 20,000| * Unlimited transactions| Remittance Munafa plus Savings Account: * Special account for receiving foreign remittance s| * 5. 12% profit per annum| * Profit paid every month| * Minimum balance of Rs. 20,000| Daily Munafa Account: Profit calculated daily, paid every month| * Up to 8. 84% profit per annum| * HBL Debit Card and Inter Branch Transaction System (IBTS) facilities| * Funds transfer to any bank through HBL Phone Banking| * Minimum balance of Rs. 20,000| Daily Progressive Account: * Unique transactional account for Institutions| * Profit calculated daily, paid every month| * Up to 11. 57% profit per annum| * Inter Branch Transaction System (IBTS) facility| * Funds transfer to any bank through HBL Phone Banking| * Minimum balance of Rs. 20,000| Foreign Currency Accounts: HBL offers Foreign Currency Accounts in multiple currencies as savings and term accounts. FC-SB: Savings Account offered in 3 currencies, USD (US dollar), EUR (Euros) and GBP (UK pound)| * Tiered product, with rates depending on choice of currency| * To earn profit, minimum balance should be 1000 USD, EUR or GBP| * Interest is payable on a quarterly basis| HYFFD (High Yield Foreign Currency Fixed Deposit): * Available in 1 month, 2 month, 3 month, 6 month and 12 Month in USD, EUR | * Tiered product, with rates depending on choice of currency and term| * Profit paid on maturity only. | Mobilization of deposits: HBL CAR LOAN: HBL CarLoan helps you get your preferred car through a simple and hassle-free process, backed by superior service and support. Now you can drive a car you always wanted. Features: * Choice of used, new local/imported and reconditioned imported car. * Repayment options ranging upto 7 years. | * Up to 85% of financing for the car of your choice. | * Insurance at all times for complete peace of mind and security. | * Round the clock support available through HBL Phone Banking you can place your requests and queries, track the status of your repayment/loan account and avail other value-added services through HBL Phone Banking. | Eligibility criteria: | Salaried Individuals | Self-Employ ed Business persons/ Professionals | Citizenship| Pakistani| Pakistani| Age| 22-60 years | 22-65 years | Minimum monthly income| Rs. 20,000 | Rs. 25,000 | Documentation: Salaried Individuals | †¢ | Copy of CNIC | | 2 recent passport size photographs| †¢| Latest original salary slip and personal bank statement for last 3 months| | Self-Employed Business persons/Professionals| †¢ | Copy of CNIC | †¢| 2 recent passport size photographs| †¢| Bank statement for last 6 months and bank letter confirming details of account| †¢| Proof of business| | HBL Car To Car:| HBL Car To Car is a revolutionary car financing offer. It makes the car of your choice affordable and practical with a buy back guarantee. HBL CarToCar offers matchless features and unique options at the end of the lease. Now you can drive a new car at the end of every two years. Features: Affordability:With HBL Car To Car, you only have to pay the difference between the car price and the pre-agreed residual value to the bank. As a result, the monthly installment may even be 40% to 50% less than that of conventional financing Upgrade of lifestyle: HBL gives you the guarantee that if you wish to return the car to us at the end of the lease term, you will not have to pay off the car’s residual value. Instead, we will directly settle this outstanding liability for you under the buy back guarantee. Hence, you can upgrade to a new car as frequently as two years* without any complication and hassle. Pay only for what you use:When you lease a car under HBL Car To Car, you only pay for that part of the car’s value that you use during the lease term.The car’s residual value* (forecasted for the end of the specific lease term) is agreed with you at the start of the lease term. This amount is deducted from the car price thus lowering the finance amount. This finance amount is based only on a part of the car’s value and not the full value of the car. Therefore, HBL CarToCar offers very low installments as compared to any conventional financing. |   | .| Flexibility| | HBL Car To Car offers you several choices at the end of the lease term:| * Upgrade – Simply return the car to HBL and drive a new one home | | * Walk away – Return the car to HBL and end the lease| | * Buy – Keep the same car.Just make a one-time settlement of the car’s residual value to HBL or pay the same in easy installments over a specified extended period of time| | * Sell – Enjoy the gain from selling off the car at a higher price in the market than what you ay HBL as the residual value| Eligibility criteria: | Salaried Individuals | Self-Employed Business persons/ Professionals | Citizenship| Pakistani| Pakistani| Age| 22-60 years | 22-65 years | Minimum monthly income| Rs. 20,000 | Rs. 25,000 | Documentation: Self-Employed Business persons/Professionals †¢ | Copy of CNIC | †¢| 2 recent passport size photographs| †¢| Bank statement for last 6 months and bank letter confirming details of account| †¢| Proof of business| Salaried Individuals | †¢ | Copy of CNIC | †¢| 2 recent passport size photographs| | Latest original salary slip and personal bank statement for last 3 months| | | | HBL Credit Card:| Welcome to a world of convenience and flexibility. Accepted at over 29 million merchants worldwide, HBL Credit Card makes shopping fun and paying simple. So make the most of your shopping experience. Gold Card|   | Green Card| Rupees| Minimum gross salary requirements| Rupees| 50,000| | Salaried individuals| 15,000| | 180,000| | Self-employed business persons/professionals| 25,000| | | Rupees| Credit limit range| Rupees| 150,000| | Minimum| 20,000| | 500,000| | Maximum| | | | HBL Home Loan:| HBL Home Loan offers financing options to purchase a new house or renovate an existing house.Outright purchase: The outright purchase loan option provides financing for buying a new house. Home im provement: Home-improvement loan option provides financing for renovating your house. Outright Purchase| Descriptors| Home Improvement/ Renovation | 3 years to 20 years| Loan tenure| 3 years to 20 years| Rs. 300,000 – Rs. 15,000,000| | Loan amount| Rs. 300,000 – Rs. 5,000,000| | 85%| | Maximum financing amount (as % of appraised value of the property)| 70%| | 5 years| Property lease (years remaining at the time of loan maturity) | 5 years| Borne by the Bank| | Property insurance| Borne by the Bank| | Primary applicant and co-borrower| | Life insurance through HBL by the insurance company on HBL panel)| Primary applicant and co-borrower| | Eligibility criteria: | Salaried Individuals| Self-Employed Business Persons/ Professionals| Nationality | Pakistani (resident) | Pakistani (resident) | Age criteria of the main applicant and co-borrower whose income is being clubbed (spouse only)| | Permanent employees Minimum age at the time of loan application should be 21 years. M aximum age at the time of loan maturity should be 60 years. Contractual employees Minimum age at the time of loan application should be 21 years. Maximum age at the time of loan maturity should be 55 years | Minimum age at the time of loan application should be 21 years.Maximum age at the time of loan maturity should be 65 years. | | Length of Employment| | Permanent employees Minimum 1 year experience; 6 months experience with confirmed employment status in the current job. Contractual employees Minimum 2 years work experience. Third party contractual not eligible. | Minimum 2 years experience in personal business| | | Documentation:| Salaried Individuals| | * CNIC copy * 2 passport size photographs * Letter from employer * 2 latest salary slips or salary certificate * Bank statement for last 6 months and bank letter confirming details of account * Copies of property documents| | Self-Employed Business Persons/ Professionals| CNIC copy * 2 passport size photographs * Proprietorship : Bank Certificate / Latest Tax Assessment Order * Latest one year bank statement * Partnership Deed * Registered Form C * Memorandum, Article of association and registered Form 29 A (applies to company directors) * Copies of property documentsSchedule of bank charges: Application processing charges (including 16% FED)| Rs. 7,000/- (non-refundable)| Early settlement charges | 4. 7% of outstanding principal | Partial payment charges | 4. 7% of adjusted principal | Late payment charges | Rs. 700 (for each late payment) | Property evaluation fee | Actual cost plus 16% FED to be recovered | Legal fee | Actual cost plus 16% FED to be recovered | | HBL INVESTMENT BANKING: HBL offers full-service Investment Banking capabilities to its clientele. This year alone, HBL has closed over thirty transactions with a cumulative worth of over USD 2 billion. This is a testament to the out-of-box thinking and the innovative products we bring to our customers.The Investment Banking Group functions in t hree specialist business areas: Project Finance, Debt Capital Markets & Syndications and Equity Capital Markets & Advisory. Project finance: The bulk of HBL’s project finance practice revolves around the power sector. Prior to the power policy of 2002, HBL actively pioneered Project Finance in Pakistan through the funding of a gas-fired co-generation plant (94 Megawatts of power and desalination of 3 million gallons per day). Subsequent to the 2002 power policy, HBL continues to play a fervent role in the sector and is the only Investment Bank that was Lead Advisor to all IPP transactions that achieved financial close.In the fertilizer sector, HBL financed the largest local currency financing in Pakistan, worth PKR 23 billion, as well as a green field venture in the telecom sector worth PKR 12 billion. Debt Capital Markets & Syndications: Depending on the requirements of its customers, HBL offers a variety of products, including syndications, securitizations, privately placed and listed TFCs, term finance facilities, commercial papers, etc. HBL played the lead role in a number of significant debt transactions, including PKR 15. 14 billion TFC issue (the largest privately placed issue in Pakistan), the first bond offering for any microfinance institution in all of Asia, credit enhancement for a rapidly growing company in the consumer durables sector and numerous tier-2 capital transactions for commercial banks. Equity & Advisory:HBL offers a breadth of equity and advisory products including innovative capital raising techniques, restructurings, public and private equity placements and mergers & acquisitions. The HBL team played a pivotal role across several sectors, including energy, agriculture, consumer products, fertilizers, etc. , for raising various forms of equity and quasi-equity. Recently, HBL structured a convertible debt note with a built-in Put feature for a US-based provider of agriculture technology and dairy solutions – a first of it s kind transaction in Pakistan. HBL also provides valuation for a company in the food and beverages sector. HBL ZaraiBanking:HBL ZaraiBanking facilities are spread across the country and provide financing through more than 800 of our branches. HBL’s presence in all agriculture belts of the country ensures easy access to farmers in rural areas. HBL ZaraiBanking provides loans to small-scale land owning farmers as well as large institutionalized and alliance based finance, enhancing agricultural harvest and, in turn, economic output of the country. Products: HBL ZaraiBanking enables farmers to invest in premier quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural implements and non-farm setups through its various product programs. Crop Inputs: Crop specific finance for purchase of Agri inputs such as seed, fertilizer, pesticide and other related inputs. Farm Implements:Finance available for purchase of farm implements & machinery like combined harvester, sprayers, ploughs, tube wells and other crop-related tools/implements. Tractors/Agricultural Vehicles: Finance available to individual farmers, self-employed tractor operators, providing the option to select vehicles from a range of different manufacturers. Livestock: Finance available for feed, medicines, raw material, raising charges and other related activities. Poultry: Finance available for all poultry related activities including poultry farm construction/equipment, hatchery plant & machinery, poultry feed, poultry medicines, composite feed production, poultry processing and other related activities. Fish Farming: Finance available for inland fish farms as well as deep-sea fishing.This includes procurement of boat, fish locating equipment, nets & ropes, ice maker, fish farm water solution, hatchery construction/equipment, purchase of medicines / feed and other related activities. Group Lending: Joint finance facility for a group of farmers with small land holdings for working capital requirement. MC B Islamic banking Islamic Banking Division was formed with effect from 1st January 2003, which in a short span of time, has developed sufficient expertise, necessary infrastructure, information technology, and manpower to run Islamic Banking Operations and offer Islamic Banking Products. Mission statement: To play a dynamic role in promotion of Islamic Banking and win customers trust by providing sharia compliant financial services. Vision:To become a leader among Islamic Banks of the country in the coming years capturing major share of the domestic Islamic financial market. Al-Makhraj Saving Account: The minimum deposit requirement for Al-Makhraj Saving Account is only Rs. 5000 and profits can be earned 6-monthly. Other features associated with this product are as follows: Minimum Initial Deposit: Rs. 5000 Islamic Tools used in designing the product: Mudaraba/ Musharaka Product to be availed by: Individuals & Joint Account Holders (Local) Companies, Corporate, Trusts, etc Special A dvantages: For Customer = Bi-Annual Profit Payment; Withdrawal Facility Shariah = Meets requirements for Shariah Compliance Additional Features: | * Personalized Cheque books| * Withdrawal Facility from ATM/ Debit Card| | * Online deposit as per bank's policy| | * Virtual Banking| | * Call Centers Facilities| | * 6-monthly profit payment on the basis of monthly declared rates| | * Issuance of duplicate statement of account (as per SOBC)| | * Free bank balance certificates (once in 6 months)| | * Taking stop payment/ hold mail/ standing instructions| | * No penalty if balance falls below minimum level. | | * Personal financial consultancy services (regarding Shariah Compliant products)| | * Utility bill payment via ATM card| | * Choice of statement frequency (as per Schedule of Charges)| IANAT Account:For customers who are looking for a chequing account that gives them the ease of doing unrestricted number of transactions, we offer Al-Makhraj Ianat Account. With a minimum of only Rs. 10,000, Ianat Account may be opened. With all the features and facilities that this product offers, it is highly recommended for management of business funds. Details of the product are as follows:| | 1| Minimum Initial Deposit: Rs. 10,000| 2| Product to be availed by: Individuals ; Joint Account Holders (Local), Companies, Corporate, Trusts, etc| 3| Additional Features: | | A| Personalized Cheque books| | B| Withdrawal Facility from ATM/ Debit Card| | C| Online deposit as per bank's policy| D| Debit card; Utilities payment via ATM card| | E| Virtual Banking| | F| Call center facilities| | G| Free bank balance certificates (once in 6 months)|   | H| Taking stop payment/ hold mail/ standing instructions|   | I| Issuance of duplicate statement of account (as per Schedule of Charges)|   | J| Choice of statement frequency (as per Schedule of Charges)|   | K| No penalty if balance falls below minimum level. | 4| Banking Network: IBD's Branch only| | Al Makhraj Term Deposit: A mi nimum of Rs. 25,000 is required for investment in Al-Makhraj Term Deposit. Choice of tenors can be made from a list of options namely 1, 3 ; 6 months, 1 or 2years.Profit payment options available to customers are monthly, quarterly and/ or at maturity. Details of the product are as follows: * Minimum Deposit: Rs. 25,000| * Islamic Tools used in designing the product: Mudaraba/ Musharaka| * Tenors Available:1 mth, 3 mth, 6 mth, 1 yr or 2 yrs | * Product to be availed by: Individuals ; Joint Account Holders (Local), Companies, Corporate, Trusts, etc| * Special Advantages: | | * For Customers = Profit Payment Options customized to suit needs of customers; Minimum Deposit requirement’s lower than most banks so it is more accessible/ affordable for people | | * Shariah = Meets requirements for Shariah Compliance | | * Additional Features: | | * Call center facilities| * Taking hold mail/ standing instructions for profit payments etc| | * Personal financial consultancy services (re garding Shariah Compliant products)| Profit Sharing Ratio on Al-Makhraj Account: Profit Sharing Ratio on Al-Makhraj Riba-Free Savings ; Term Deposit   Accounts is: Rabbul Maal (Depositor)|   Ã‚  70%| Mudarib (Bank)|   Ã‚  30%| MCB offers 3 broad Islamic fund based facilities: * Ijarah * Mudarabah * Diminishing Musharika Equipment Ijarah: MCB’s Islamic Ijarah, analogous to the English term ‘leasing’, is based on the ‘Ijarah wa Iqtina’ concept which means the sale of the asset to the lessee (customer) after the Ijarah has matured. Under this scheme, MCB will be the owner of the asset, and you (lessee) will be given the asset to use

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Social Media Analytics Tools How to Choose the Best One For Your Brand

Social Media Analytics Tools How to Choose the Best One For Your Brand Here’s something we say around the office: â€Å"If you can’t measure it, you didn’t actually do anything.† That goes for every strategy and tactic we execute. Including social media marketing. In order to measure social performance, you need a robust set of tools that can measure your core metrics and KPIs. That’s where having a solid suite of social media analytics tools comes in. They’re essential for gathering all your important performance metrics in one place, and producing reports that prove you’re making a meaningful impact on your business. Best of all, we’ve built robust social analytics features right into , making our platform your go-to destination for measuring and reporting on social media performance. In this post, we’ll cover: How makes it easy to plan, schedule, and measure all your social media content in one place. How to use our full social analytics suite to measure every post and campaign. How stacks up against other tools on the market. Ready? Let’s go.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How to Write an Informative Speech

How to Write an Informative Speech Often students will need to learn how to write an informative speech sometime in the last couple of years of high school or first couple of years in college. Writing an informative speech has two primary considerations – length of the speech and flow. When first learning how to write an informative speech, students make the following two errors – length of speech is too short/too long or the wording selected is difficult to give due to the words being unnatural to the speaker. You may want to write your speech quickly and using the higher language and sentence structure that gets you the best grades in your writing classes; however, how to write an informative speech is completely different from how to write a professional paper. You will need the words on the page to flow naturally, and your question is: you may write that way, but do you speak that way. Read your paragraphs aloud slowly while you work on your paper. Single paragraphs where you will evaluate the sentences, structure, and terminology along the way using a criteria that finds a common ground between your normal speech patterns and the need to sound educated during your speech – do you normally speak in long sentences, or short sentences, can you pronounce all the words in the paragraph or are a few taking a little longer to come out correctly, and will you be able to maintain a strong flow or beat through the talking. Finally, check the time of your speech by reading through your paper quickly, because barring interruptions, if this is your first time giving a speech you may find yourself either stumbling or reading too quickly while in front of an audience. All the practice in the world will not make up the 30 seconds of silence while you wait for your time at the podium to end. You can also order a custom informative speech at our professional speech writing service which is committed to provide customers with high-quality custom written speeches.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Why Atoms Form Chemical Bonds With Each Other

Why Atoms Form Chemical Bonds With Each Other Atoms form chemical bonds to make their outer electron shells more stable. The type of chemical bond maximizes the stability of the atoms that form it. An ionic bond, where one atom essentially donates an electron to another, forms when one atom becomes stable by losing its outer electrons and the other atoms become  stable (usually by filling its valence shell) by gaining the electrons. Covalent bonds form when sharing atoms results in the highest stability. Other types of bonds besides ionic and covalent chemical bonds exist, too. Bonds and Valence Electrons The very first electron shell only holds two electrons. A hydrogen atom (atomic number 1) has one proton and a lone electron, so it can readily share its electron with the outer shell of another atom. A helium atom (atomic number 2), has two protons and two electrons. The two electrons complete its outer electron shell (the only electron shell it has), plus the atom is electrically neutral this way. This makes helium stable and unlikely to form a chemical bond. Past hydrogen and helium, its easiest to apply the octet rule to predict whether two atoms will form bonds and how many bonds they will form. Most atoms need eight electrons to complete their outer shell. So, an atom that has two outer electrons will often form a chemical bond with an atom that lacks two electrons to be complete. For example, a sodium atom has one lone electron in its outer shell. A chlorine atom, in contrast, is short one electron to fill its outer shell. Sodium readily donates its outer electron (forming the Na ion, since it then has one more proton than it has electrons), while chlorine readily accepts a donated electron (making the Cl- ion, since chlorine is stable when it has one more electron than it has protons). Sodium and chlorine form an ionic bond with each other to form table salt (sodium chloride). A Note About Electrical Charge You may be confused about whether the stability of an atom is related to its electrical charge. An atom that gains or loses an electron to form an ion is more stable than a neutral atom if the ion gets a full electron shell by forming the ion. Because oppositely charged ions attract each other, these atoms will readily form chemical bonds with each other. Why Do Atoms Form Bonds? You can use the periodic table to make several predictions about whether atoms will form bonds and what type of bonds they might form with each other. On the far right-hand side of the periodic table is the group of elements called the noble gases. Atoms of these elements (e.g., helium, krypton, neon) have full outer electron shells. These atoms are stable and very rarely form bonds with other atoms. One of the best ways to predict whether atoms will bond with each other and what type of bonds they will form is to compare the electronegativity values of the atoms. Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction an atom has to electrons in a chemical bond. A large difference between electronegativity values between atoms indicates one atom is attracted to electrons, while the other can accept electrons. These atoms usually form ionic bonds with each other. This type of bond forms between a metal atom and a nonmetal atom. If the electronegativity values between two atoms are comparable, they may still form chemical bonds to increase the stability of their valence electron shell. These atoms usually form covalent bonds. You can look up electronegativity values for each atom to compare them and decide whether an atom will form a bond or not. Electronegativity is a periodic table trend, so you can make general predictions without looking up specific values. Electronegativity increases as you move from left to right across the periodic table (except for the noble gases). It decreases as you move down a column or group of the table. Atoms on the left-hand side of the table readily form ionic bonds with atoms on the right side (again, except the noble gases). Atoms in the middle of the table often form metallic or covalent bonds with each other.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Writing exercises Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Writing exercises - Essay Example is the gripping, intense, and engrossing analysis of diverse group of jurors who are uncomfortably assembled together to deliberate after hearing some facts from an apparently open-and-shut murder trial. They leave to a jury room for civic duty and pass a just verdict for indigent minority defendant whose life is at crossroad. The jury of the twelve angry men, delegated the power to take an uneducated, teenaged and tenement-dwelling boy to electric chair for murdering his dad with a switchblade knife, literally locked themselves in a small, enclosed rectangular room on a boiling hot summer day and made a unanimous decision. The compelling, provocative film reveals the deep-seated, perceptual biases and weaknesses, personal prejudices, indifference, anger, cultural differences, personalities, unreliable judgments, ignorance and fears of the twelve men, which threaten to skew their decision-making abilities hence causing them to ignore real issues of the case, and make unjust actions. The jury room was characterized with heated discussions, the frequent re-assessment and changing of opinions, the formation of alliances, votes and certainties, and the re-consideration of personal experiences, outbursts and insults. Nonetheless, one brave rebellious juror was not part of the plot to cause miscarriage of justice at the commencement of the deliberations due to his reasonable doubt. Determinedly and persuasively, he urged the other eleven men to slowly rethink and review the wobbly case (and eyewitness testimony) concerning the endangered defendant. He further chastises the system for granting the unfortunate offender an incompetent court-appointed defense lawyer who â€Å"felt bitter about being appointed† - a case with â€Å"no glory, no money or much chance of winning† - and who inefficiently cross-examined the witnesses. The claims of juror No.8 was an example of ethical virtue. This film clearly shows the eleven jurors did not ethically deliberate and they could not

Friday, October 18, 2019

Compare and contrast the values, institutions and actions of the Essay

Compare and contrast the values, institutions and actions of the city-states of Sparta and Athens - Essay Example Athenian citizens had enjoyed strong constitutional rights in political and legal aspects. This made them strong, materially and psychologically, which was envied by many non-citizens and these aspects were not compromised upon for anything else. At the Funeral Oration of Pericles, it was declared that the Greek Constitution was unique in its laws and is an example for others. It is meant for all people of the State and hence is democracy. The laws provide equal justice to all in their private differences; no form of discrimination is allowed based on social status or race and creed and not even by economic status. Any citizen serving the State will not be hindered by the obscurity of his position. This freedom extends from government to ordinary life (Butler, K; 18). Political organizations in Athens and the surrounding cities differed in specific instance conflict, as well as cooperation among groups. Athens was always in a better position than other States and tend to dictate to t he smaller states with which it was in league. Failure to meet Athenian expectations, whether reasonable or unreasonable, sometimes resulted in harsh treatment and other sorts of vindications announced. The impact of Greek concepts spread extensively through the Roman jurisprudence and philosophy, particularly the idea of ‘rights’ that the Greek government had announced. On the other side, Sparta was also admired by the Ancient World for different reasons. It was a military prowess and had a stable political system. Military, in Sparta, was different in that it was strengthened to cause repression of the majority of the internal population instead of defense against external aggression. This is treated as an early example of the conscious creation of state institutions for massive, ongoing repression of the kind Hobbes’ absolutist governor would have to have. Contrast to the Athenian ideology,

CIS212_U5_Discussion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

CIS212_U5_Discussion - Essay Example Legal compliance relates to the kind of rules, regulations, and laws that an institution operating a business activity must comply with (Wood, 2014). These, also apply to the entire staff in such an organization. The institution normally has to identify what requirements the law requires it to have before setting foot into starting the venture. Contrary to this, the business may end up with many penalties that may curtail its ability to survive. These requirements are inclusive of the premises you intend to lease and employment through meeting particular obligations of the employer. Further, it consists the agreements with your suppliers, the structuring of your business, how to manage risks, and dealing with contracts. In addition, look at how safe and healthy your working environment is beside the enormous concentration on information and its privacy. Business continuity plan is a vital step for an institution to respond to an incident for instance floods, fire so as to restore its essential functionalities (Snedaker, 2007). Although each system stipulates how they plan is, there are everyday things in the program. They include threat analysis, areas affected, details on emergency and teams for recovery. Further, methods to backup data off the site are important alongside plans for alternative power. The step seeks to reinstate the business operations to the initial state of operation. To accomplish this, there is need to weigh the damage, have an estimate for the costing and inclusion of companies on insurance. Also deal with managing and following up on the process of recovery. The shift to the standard management team is also

Human Rights in World Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Human Rights in World Politics - Essay Example The exclusion of social and political groups as targets of genocide in legal definition of genocide has been debated. Some historians and sociologists often refer to social and political groups when discussing about genocide. However, the generally accepted notion on genocide is the, it is the purposeful annihilation of a social identity (Genocide). The term genocide should be redefined to include smaller groups rather than national groups with larger population. Discrimination or intended killings of small groups according to their race, ethnic background or even religious beliefs, whether perpetuated by individual or insignificant groups should be included in the context of genocide. As history had shown, killings on catastrophic proportion usually started out in unchecked and insignificant killings on lesser degree that later eventually escalate to a full-pledge genocide. In order for genocide to develop, the following circumstances must be present: classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination, and denial. Classification happens when cultures distinguish people into 'us' and 'others' basing on merely on race, religion, nationality, or ethnic background with further naming to such classifications, thus symbolization arises.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Discussion Questions and Participation Questions Essay - 4

Discussion Questions and Participation Questions - Essay Example Also due to the bad forecast companies that are growing are not hiring back the employees they let go. I work in the meat packing industry. Two indicators that would be useful for the company to follow are the average income of the population and the unemployment rate of the population. Both indicators are in terms of regional metrics, not national. If the income of the population grows so does the capacity of the customer to consume more meat. When the population is employed they spend more money on groceries which includes meats. Three indictors that I would recommend to any company operating in the United States are population growth, income per capita, and inflation. Population growth is an important metric because the production of companies depends on the amount of customer available in the marketplace. Higher population growth projections imply that companies have to adjust their production accordingly. Income per capita is a valuable metric due to the fact that income and consumption are correlated. People spend more when they have higher income. Inflation is an important metric to consider because inflates affects the purchasing power of an enterprise. High inflation leads to lower purchasing power. The use of external information available in websites dedicated to providing economic information to its users can be very useful for companies in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprise. The website DismalScientist provides excellent information that can help managers make better decisions. There is chart in the website showing the distribution of federal aid money across the 50 states. States with higher distribution are places marketers should target. The website also had up to date information concerning economic indexes such as GDP, industrial producer prices, and monetary policy. The economic indexes are available for different countries

Men and Women's tailoring 1935-1950 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Men and Women's tailoring 1935-1950 - Essay Example This paper shall critically assess the effects of world events (around the time of 1930-1950) on both men’s and women’s tailoring, focusing on changing aesthetics in relation to gender. It shall also discuss the effects world events (like World War II) on women’s and men’s role and on lifestyle changes. The gender issues that were existent from 1935-1950 and how these issues changed the aesthetics of tailoring fashion shall also be discussed in this paper. Men’s fashion in the early 30’s was influenced by the Wall Street Crash of October 1929. Nolan (2005) discusses that, at about this time 8 million people were out of work in the United States. As a result, clothing was not prioritized over basic necessities. Clothing sales declined and many apparel businesses went out of business. The demand for Edwardian style clothes also declined. The tailors and clothing designers were forced to come up with a different style of dressing. Men’s suits were then designed to create the image of a large torso with shoulders squared with shoulder pads and sleeves tapered to the wrist. Peaked lapels formed a v-shaped chest. The double-breasted suit became popular and eventually gave way to the modern business suit (Nolan, 2005). In 1935, however, prosperity in the United States slowly returned. Prosperity also demanded a better design of the business suit. The ‘London cut’ was introduced to the fashion world at this p oint. Sleeves tapered slightly from shoulder to wrist, the pockets and buttons were high, the lapels were wide and pointed flaring from the top rather than the middle buttons, and flat rather than roll lapels completed the London cut business suit (Nolan, 2005). The London cut business suit underwent various changes to its style with the Windsor double-breasted and the Kent double-breasted suits making their way into men’s tailoring. Blazers also became a

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Discussion Questions and Participation Questions Essay - 4

Discussion Questions and Participation Questions - Essay Example Also due to the bad forecast companies that are growing are not hiring back the employees they let go. I work in the meat packing industry. Two indicators that would be useful for the company to follow are the average income of the population and the unemployment rate of the population. Both indicators are in terms of regional metrics, not national. If the income of the population grows so does the capacity of the customer to consume more meat. When the population is employed they spend more money on groceries which includes meats. Three indictors that I would recommend to any company operating in the United States are population growth, income per capita, and inflation. Population growth is an important metric because the production of companies depends on the amount of customer available in the marketplace. Higher population growth projections imply that companies have to adjust their production accordingly. Income per capita is a valuable metric due to the fact that income and consumption are correlated. People spend more when they have higher income. Inflation is an important metric to consider because inflates affects the purchasing power of an enterprise. High inflation leads to lower purchasing power. The use of external information available in websites dedicated to providing economic information to its users can be very useful for companies in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprise. The website DismalScientist provides excellent information that can help managers make better decisions. There is chart in the website showing the distribution of federal aid money across the 50 states. States with higher distribution are places marketers should target. The website also had up to date information concerning economic indexes such as GDP, industrial producer prices, and monetary policy. The economic indexes are available for different countries

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Topic in Instruction (Organizational Behavior) Essay

Topic in Instruction (Organizational Behavior) - Essay Example Examples here include stimulation of innovation and creativity, qualitative decision making, positive self evaluation, increased curiosity and interest among employees (Rahim, 2001). To this end, functional conflict improves the performance of a group and supports its goals. Moreover, it is aligned towards serving the interest of an organization. In an environment synonymous with functional conflict, people are able to express their ideas and opinions freely, challenge the beliefs, opinions, and ideas of others. Functional conflict can equally be viewed as a ‘group thinking’ antidote in which feelings of loyalty and solidarity for a decision making group supersedes the imperative to realistically and logically examine all possible options (Rahim, 2001). To this end, another definition of functional conflict refers to the constructive challenging of beliefs, ideas, and assumptions. It equally espouses respect for viewpoints raised by others even in the event of disagreeme nt between parties. Furthermore, it involves consultative interactions that are characterized by beneficial give and take. On the other hand, dysfunctional conflict is viewed as unhealthy and related to negative outcomes. It is detrimental towards the achievement of the organizations goals and hinders group performance. Evidently, dysfunctional conflict reduces group performance and satisfaction due to the creation of antagonism, tension and distraction of people form work functions. Moreover, dysfunctional conflict is counterproductive and wasteful to an organization’s resources. To this end, dysfunctional conflicts are normally characterized by people who are not willing to work as a team in order to solve problems. Examples here include less productivity, distorted communication, distrust, hostility, minimal group cohesion and low efficiency. Consequently, the conventional definition of dysfunctional conflict is given as an unhealthy process associated with distorted organ ization behavior, poor group or individual performance as well as dissatisfaction. Antecedents of Conflict One of the antecedents of conflict includes communication barriers. Evidently, the facets of communication barriers includes such things like language differences and physical separation that results to message distortion which can end up in conflict. Value judgment is also another facet of communication barrier. For example, a employee who is persistent complainer may face a devaluation of his or her message from the manager even before it is delivered.Competition over scarce resources offers another antecedent of conflict. This is evident in circumstances when different organizational units or interested parties attempt to distribute and allocate resources. In circumstance when rules used in the allocation of resources are deemed as unfair, conflict is most likely to arise among the interested parties. Supremacy competitions among employees whereby they seek to outshine or ou tdo each other offers an avenue for conflict in organizations. Evidently, it occurs when two or more employees are engaged in supremacy battles over promotion or control of comparative power within the organization.Cultural and personality differences equally constitute an antecedent of conflict. The existence of diverse culture presents an avenue of conflict especially in the event that there is a lack of respect or understanding.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Budgeting in the Hotel Industry

Budgeting in the Hotel Industry Abstract This study focuses on the concept of budgeting in hotel industry particularly on the case of Marriott Hotel and Resorts. It primarily identifies the current issues, challenges and opportunities faced by Marriott Hotel. It also aims to find out various aspect of budgeting within hotel industry specifically on how to develop more positive implementation of budget in terms of the company’s financial performance. Using data gathered from interview and personal experience upon placement, the researcher should be able to provide explanation and practical solutions or recommendations related to the general findings or perhaps the aim of the study. Chapter 1 1.1 Main Aims and Objectives of The Study To provide a wide-ranging discussion on the concept of budgeting and their implementation within hotel industry is the main objective of this study. Through a case study approach, the following are the main specific objectives: To describe the process of budgeting employed by Marriott Hotel. To identify the current issues, challenges and opportunities faced by Marriott Hotel. To propose practical solutions and recommendations on the identified issues, challenges and opportunities. 1.2 Research Questions Budgeting is an essential element in any industry. In this case, the concept of budgeting is focused on the following problems: How Marriott Hotel employs the process of budgeting? What are the current issues, challenges and opportunities faced by Marriott Hotel? What are some practical solutions and recommendations on the identified issues, challenges and opportunities? 1.3 Background of The Study â€Å"Hoteliers use budgeting and forecasting for strategic planning and financial control, and as a standard against which to measure actual operating results. Financial forecasts and budgets can strengthen managements control of hotel operating expenses and help determine the profitability of the property†. â€Å"Budgeting is planning. In order to make meaningful decision about the future, a manager must look ahead. One way to look ahead is to prepare budgets or forecast† Coltman, Michael M. (1998). In past few years the enormous booming of the tourism industry, budgetary practices in hotel industry has become a significantly studied area of business research and activity. â€Å"Previous research into budgeting practice was undertaken by Schmidgall and Ninemeier (1987 and1989) within the USA†, â€Å"Collier and Gregory (1995) dealt on practices of management accounting of six (6) organizations including budgeting†. â€Å"The early and limited accounts o f management accounting particularly budgeting within hotel industry paved way for increased effort of few hospitality educators to the need of undertaking research into budgetary practices within the industry (Schimidgall et al., 1996)†. Now days, research work on management accounting and practice are growing unlike any other research field. The findings of this piece of individual work to carry out a research work in the area of management accounting specifically on budgeting aspect and also to look on the relevance and applicability on the case of Marriott Hotel. It also emphasize that the literatures to be used on this study increases until the conclusion of the entire research activity. Other management accounting principle will also be considered. 1.4 Significance of The Research At the end of the research project, the researcher should be able to provide a better way of planning budget as well as their proper use. After determining the important issues, challenges and opportunities on the budgeting approach or strategy of Marriott Hotel, this study will be beneficial to other hotel companies and related business in the hospitality industry especially those who are experiencing similarly related problems. This study will increase the consciousness and will provide a better understanding of the issues and problems concerning budgeting among most hotel companies and organizations. It will improve knowledge through the use of accounting principle as well as definition of important concept, interpretation and analysis of financial statement is the main priority. Also, this will contribute an effective approach in addressing budgetary problems and difficulties. This paper is clearly important for organization that follows appropriate accounting standard and use it for planning the budget and control the cost and expenditure to deploy effective budgetary management within the hotel industry. Chapter 2 2.1 Methodology This is a descriptive research in terms of its purpose, qualitative in terms of its process, case study in terms of methodology, and applicable in terms of its outcome. The researcher used the Descriptive research since â€Å"descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine change over time† â€Å"Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied†. Further, â€Å"Qualitative research is all about exploring issues, understanding phenomena, and answering questions† It’s Mainly focuses on meaning of words and the research setting and in terms of designing the research is the main focal point. Similarly, case study is also used on this project â€Å"Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research†. It aims to develop complete understanding of the case as possible and is not linked with any particular research technique. This method involves the researcher to inquire more in depth analysis and examine thorough a real life experience of a person. It is also noted how these behaviors change as the individual adapts and reacts to that particular situation. The discovery and identification of all the important variables which have contributed to the history or development of the chosen subject is also feasible through this method. In this study, the researcher used applied research since it includes the analysis of a real life situation and explores the problem, issues associated with a real life scenario, which is happening at the moment, and establishes a strong connection with the real environment. 2.2 Data Collection and Analysis Data collection or requirement for the research covered both primary and secondary sources.   The sources of data are the following: primary data – interview and personal experience and secondary data – published literatures directly linked on the subject. Data gathered from the interviews will be analyzed by comparing the common theme from the respondent. The interview involved managers working on Marriott Hotel who exercise management accounting particularly on the budgeting aspect. Interview is an effective way to accumulate some inside information of one particular company and discover important facts that any individual came across and also share experiential knowledge. The information gathered from the interviewee were directly quoted or referenced to support the initial observations of the researcher. Analysis and discussion of findings were included to both literatures and the facts that obtained through investigation. Using the theories and principles of management accounting, the researcher came up with discussions, conclusion and recommendations as a par of the project and also to provide a clear understanding of the entire project. Chapter 3 Literature Review The literature studies in terms of research work in management accounting as well as various other related topics in budgeting are extensive. This chapter covers the related literatures conducted on the area of study. By undertaking such approach , the research may be lead accordingly by discovering the source of the research, what and how much have been done in the past and what is still yet to be tackle. Besides providing background of the study, this study will also provide the necessary theoretical and various other related aspects in order for the research to stand convincing. References are taken form many different resources specifically, in the area of budgeting in hotel industry and issues on budgeting. 3.1 Budgeting in Hotel Industry This section provides a fundamental understanding of budgeting concept in hospitality industry and their use in their daily operation. â€Å"The use of budgetary control is one of the key detective controls in many hotel businesses† Chin, J., Barney, W and O’Sullivan. The traditional idea on the concept of hotel is a sort of business establishment that offers paid temporary housing or simply lodging. Such services are provided in a short term basis and it concludes in a specified period of time. In the meantime, money is often referred as the income of the business and on the other hand budgets provides a guideline for any expenditure and increase the shareholders wealth and owners interest in terms of providing a standard service for the business to stand creditable. â€Å"The budget is like an airline Pilot’s flight plan; it sets out in figures where to steer in order to reach a given objective† Fenton, Lawrence, Fowler, Norman A., Parkinson, Geoff. Without a clear budget in mind, the business would not achieve the targeted return or perhaps maximised return required by the owner of the business since it cannot identify the risks and costs involved in its future trend. â€Å"The process of budgeting is considered to be a valuable control tool in the hospitality industry†. The primary concept and as stated before, hospitality industry is an operation establishment that offers short-term paid lodging to mostly travellers, tourists and other people. This is the traditional and main or common idea of people when they hear the term hotel. In the earlier days, hotels services were limited, such as a bed and its complete bedding, a locker, a small table – most of the time side table, and a washstand that includes bathroom and other comfort facilities. Additional features include telephone service, television (cable TV), and other necessary yet basic things like coffee or tea making accessories. In addition from the extended line of facilities and services, hotels also include some other special operations. At present time, the services provide by hotel has extended far more then their core business and presently hotels are offering events, banqueting and conference services. Most commonly hotels are said to be service-oriented. The identity of a hotel is based on the service particularly on the quality and overall operational standards. The presence of a hotel classification based on stars rating system. 3.2 Why Budgeting in Hospitality Industry? The use of budget and budgetary control is now a vital part of the Hospitality industry accounting and should then be use as a benchmark to measure their performance as well setting up their financial target. â€Å"The budgeting process is often used not only to plan ahead, but also for target setting and raising individual performance.† Adams, Debra. Hotel business alone is continuously growing in the 21st century. â€Å"The UK hotel market was valued at  £14bn in 2006, having an increased by 28.9% since 2002†. This industry comprises hotels and other accommodations, restaurants, fast food retail, bars, and catering. In order to sustain in this competitive market or to perform as a successful key player, any hotel industry must adopt budgeting; hence this will assist the management to plan ahead for their future target. â€Å"Budgeting is planning. In order to make meaningful decisions about the future a manager must look ahead. One way to look ahead is to prepare budget or forecast†. Gareth Owen (1998) has explained budgetary process in hotel business by drawing a budgetary cycle. Environmental Influences audit Internal resources audit Actual result Master Budget Departmental Budget Strategic Plan (3-7) years Annual Business plan Long term Strategic Gap Short term Operational gap (Accounting for Hospitality Tourism leisure Auth: Gereth Owen Second edition P: 297) The author has explained the overall planning cycle a top down process and for a long term objectives should determine any short term activity that has a significant impact in operational process. A strong hand in controlling their daily operation; for instance what is done from minute to minute, hour by hour and day to day will have a direct impact on long term plans. On the other hand controlling in any short term activities will directly influence in any long term objective. Therefore long terms aim or objective needs support from short term objective. There are several kinds of budgets are employed in hospitality establishment. For instance Capital Budget, Operating Budget, Master Budget, Departmental Budget, Fixed Budget, Flexible Budget. Each of these different kinds of budget comprise of many other type. 3.3 Budgetary process The process of budgetary practices in a hotel starts with the departmental budget, the consequence behind that is a departmental budget will give overall cost related to the many parts of the hotel for instance a house profit cannot be estimated without knowing the cost associated with department like housekeeping, valet, repairs and maintenance, room service reception etc. Also cash budget cannot be prepared without the knowledge of departmental revenue and expense hence the overall cost of the hotel. Departmental budget is probably the most difficult to prepare after the sales budget and involve a lot of manpower and moreover time consuming. The departmental budgeting process can be summarised in four steps. Assign a task for the department managers to gather information such as revenue, cost and expenditure. Analyse the past trend and estimate any revenue generated by the revenue centres like Brassiere, Banqueting, Restaurant, Front Office (reception), business centre, room service. Subtracts any expenditure from the estimated revenue related to the department. Finalise the information with the department managers before combining into one report At this point all the expenses and revenue should be combined with a detail report of explanation for the budgeted cost and revenue for that specific period, the department manager will have to decide whether this budget is feasible over that period or not, once this has been approved by the D.O.F it will then be combined in the Hotel Master Budget. Once the departmental budget has been established its time to prepare the cash budget, this will help the management to see the detail view of their cash inflows and outflows and will enable to plan a head for any expenditure. In today’s financial world almost every company adopt a cash budget as its help the management making decision about their future abilities for paying any debt as well as expenditure. Having discussed the budgetary process, many hotel industries uses more advanced, reliable techniques in addition to budgetary process to clarify any last minute adjustment prior to the budgetary period another word forecast is an updated version of the final budget. Forecasting is mainly use in budgeting and it also could be applicable to many other aspects in the industry. â€Å"A more accurate forecasting of room occupancy rates would facilitate strategic planning and enhance the decision-making procedures of hotel management companies† Forecasting is normally done in monthly basis prior to the beginning of the month, many company has more frequent forecasting policy. Two most commonly use forecasting method is the â€Å"moving average† and â€Å"multiple regressions† and this process is normally carried out by the finance department of any hotel. In Marriott, the hotel and its management start to prepare the budget in middle of the year for the upcoming next one year. The officers and members of the top level finance management are the ones responsible for the completion of the most appropriate and inclusive yearly budget. The hotel uses a bottom up approach budgeting system another word â€Å"participative budgeting method†. Participative budgeting involves employee’s participation in preparation of the budgeting at various level of organisational aspect, even though the final decision is made by the top level management. Participative budgeting gives employee an excellent opportunity to take the owner ship of their own budget document and motivation to meet the target. â€Å"A budgeting system in which all budget holders are given the opportunity to participate in setting their own budgets†. In this method all the managers are responsible for preparing their own departmental budget with the assistant of a finance manager. The departmental managers normally start preparing the budget in the month of July based on past trend, the managers will look ahead for the whole year projected expense like wages and salaries, any fixed and variable cost like labour cost and then calculate the required profit by the owner. The managers will then evaluate the budget inside-out to clarify is it practical? Is it reachable? The finance manager will then put forward their draft budget to upper level finance management for approval. Once this has been approved by the Director of Finance, general manager and the executive team it will then unite in their master budget and finally a copy of the Master budget will be sent to their regional office for approved by the Area director of finance. Marriott previously used a software package for helping the departmental manager preparing the budget which no longer supported and exchanged with the idea of using Excel spread shit Template. This template helps the manager whose are not very budget educated and has a limited understanding of budgeting concept. After end of each month the hotel publish an internal PL (Profit and Loss account) report for the departments to evaluate the performance. The department head will be asked to critique on their result to the director of finance (DOF) and DOF finally create a critique report which will be reviewed by the regional office. The following discussion is an example of Marriott Hotel Master Budget for a year. However, it is noted that specific figures are altered for the purposes of corporate confidentiality. Please refer to a copy of the Master budget in Appendix I Figure 1.1 is the detailed presentation of the hotel’s revenue target for the year 2006. As seen on the records, the room sales have a considerable portion in the total revenue because of the fact that this is the core of their entire business operations. This figure has been compared with the budget of the previous year 2005. Basing on the figures obtained from the comparison, the total room revenue significantly increased over12-month’s period. Depending on the upcoming business, the hotel management set this target for example, if any major function taking place in the month of August during the summer particularly this year, they then increase the target for the profit and revenue compared with the previous year. The total number of room sales revenue holds 25.44% share in the total sales. In this particular hotel, we can also see that they make the most revenue from the banqueting service although the room sales are their core business. The banqueting service has a share of 63.21% of the total sales. Meanwhile, the total Food and Beverage sales revenue has a significant impact in the hotel business. As a primary section of the entire hospitality industry, it plays a significant role in any hotel industry business. After determining the target for the total revenue of the hotel, the officers and members of the top level finance management who is in control of the overall budgeting process will start to look into the hotel’s expenses and wages. The department head will be asked to gather the needed information and come up with the numbers based on past business trends and experiences. The finance director will then discuss and undergo further clarifications with the department head before approving a unified master budget. In Figure 1.2, figures show the breakdown of all the expenses. The General Admin cost mainly consisted of the Directors’ remuneration and other hotel general expense including Directors’ Parks. From the data presented, it shows that this is one of their main expenses accounting to 32.42% of the total expense. Repairs Maintenance is also a major cost centre. This is due to the fact that it takes off a great amount of the hotel’s profit especially in the case of providing finances in fixing and repairing hotel equipment and facilities. Meanwhile, Sales marketing expenses are mainly accounted to finance hotel’s advertising campaign to promote their business and how to develop their services. On the case of Advertising, it is fixed over the whole year but could be changed depending on the business. Lastly, Figure 1.3 gives an itemized breakdown of the payroll expense including rooms, food and beverages, and other departments. The Food and beverage section employs the biggest number of people. As an important part of the hotel and its entire operations, it needs a great number of manpower to provide services to the hotel clients. The changes in the wages are brought about by trends affecting the whole hotel business operations. After determining all the expenses and the sales target, the officers and members of the top level finance management will then subtract the hotel expenses from the revenue figure to finalize the targeted profit figure. A monthly forecast takes place at the beginning of each month in addition to their quarterly forecast. For example in their 2008 budget they will have a monthly forecast for the month of January as well an advance forecast for the up coming next three month to see if there is any rapid movements in the current trend and perform any last minute adjustment. A forecast can be described as a latest update for the operating budget where a budget is a permanent financial planning for the year. A forecast is not expected to balance with their budget figures as they are flexible in terms of their use and can be changed to meet the demand of the business. 3.4 Issues on Budgeting It is argued that budgeting is considered as an â€Å"old system of control† (Malmi, 2001) or a â€Å"traditional† management accounting (MA) technique (Burns and Yazdifar, 2001). Moreover, it has weaknesses and pitfalls particularly in its entire process (Cruz, 2007). Budgets are prepared on the base of some known factor as well as unknown factor which really means making a future plan just by predicting the possible future business. Budgets preparation also requires disclosing company’s financial information which could be use by the competitor such as their financial performance result. Moreover any surplus in the budget could lead to unnecessary spending; for instance if an expenditure budgets is overvalued then there might be a possibility to find ways to spend those extra fund. There are so many limiting factors in budget and this has been criticised by many individual in the past. Following are the few criticism extracted from the â€Å"Management accounting-Performance evaluation book. Budgets are a commitment. They therefore act as a constraint on doing anything different. Traditional budget are seen as a mechanism for top down control by senior management. Traditional budget restrict flexibility Budget reinforces barriers between department† During the interview with a Finance manager from Marriott hotel, the researcher has found out some specific problem that a manager encounter when preparing the budget which conclude a bad performance in their actual outcome. It was explained that why a manager or hotel don’t meet their budget could be subject to preparing a budget that is realistically unsuitable. Following are the highlighted points that came up during the interview. Unrealistic / too optimistic: If the budget has been prepared by a senior level management based on their own assumption, might not be realistic or acceptable by a lower level manager and could even result a failure to meet the target. A departmental manager will have a better understanding of their target for the specified period rather then being too optimistic about the goal set by the senior managers. Over estimate/ under estimate: A manager tends to make the common mistake when preparing the budget by either over estimating or underestimating the budget. From a budgeting point of view the both issues are identified as a bad influence. Not much participation from the bottom level management: Sometime when preparing the budget becomes sort of an empowering issue and the senior level management ignore the fact of participation by a manager whom it will be assigned. On the other hand a lower level manager might not be interested to add any comment on their budget due to lack of understanding in this area. Poor planning: A poor planning could really effect any budgeting; therefore use of proper time management is very important when preparing the budget. Use of past trend: comparing the past trend result will give them more accurate information whether the set target will be achievable or not or anything particular they need to look at, compare to previous year result. Communication gap: lack of communication between top level management and bottom level management. Despite the first interview with a finance manager, the researcher has also interviewed a top level finance manager, who discussed the issues by putting them into two groups. This could be as follows. Two Groups: 1. External Issue 2. Internal Issue 3.4.1 External issues Unfortunate event (for instance natural disaster): A sudden natural disaster or any unfortunate tragic event could significantly affect the budget for any fiscal year. Changes in government rules and regulation: Any changes in government law for instance health and safety issue or maybe increase in taxation might cause a review of the budget and to carry out a review process will cost more time and money. 3.4.2 Internal issues Hotel renovation: This is a practical example even the researcher has came across during working for the Marriott hotel, the researcher has found out delays occurring through out the life time of the renovation could result to many changes in their budget and loss of revenue and as the hotel funds are limited it is very difficult for the management to tackle this kind of situation. In relation to the bottom level management following are the major concern Lack of understanding Not knowing the operation properly Communication across department ( Example CB) It was identified by the management that the most difficult part of a budget in any hotel establishment is the sales budget. Prior to conclude any figure in the sales budget a forecast should be done. Consequently the forecast number of room sales will give an idea of the cost related to the budget and the management will have a clear picture of different type of cost such as variable and semi fixed cost. One of the major facts that will influence in the forecast for the sales is called as limiting factor also known as â€Å"principal budget factor. This means an additional increase in the sales volume will almost be impossible; for instance the number of rooms available is fixed and therefore the management cannot sell any more then what is available. This has left them with no choice for any additional sale except an increase in the room price; as a consequence they must make sure that they are in line with a hundred percent occupancy rate during the festive season or if possible most of the time during the year. Same issues also influence their restaurant budget such as fixed number of seats available in their restaurant and not able to accommodate any extra guest and this may well result in loss of any potential sales as they cannot increase the seating capacity of the restaurant. There are several kinds of limiting factor can be found in the hospitality industry. According to â€Å"Richard Kotas and Michael Conlan† such limiting factors are like insufficient capital, shortage of efficient labour, management policy, consumer demand. 3.5 Budgetary behaviour and employee motivation It is found that different aspects of budget/ budgeting can affect motivation of employees. â€Å"Kenis (1979) believed that a â€Å"tight but attainable† budget approach is the most effective way to motivate managers to perform better†. â€Å"The budget may be set as a target that management are motivated to meet, a realistic forecast of the likely outcome, or some combination of these goals. Hofstede and other have suggested that the target must be accepted by the budget holder, and this would usually be achieved with a bottom up or interactive approach† Collier, p., Gregory. Chris Argyris (1952-1953) has indentified that â€Å"budgets and budgeting can be related to at least four human relation problems: First, budgets pressure tends to unite the employees against management, and tends to place factory supervisor under tension. Second, the finance staff can obtain feelings of success only by finding fault with factory people. Third, the use of budget as ‘needlers’ by top management tends to make the factory supervisor to see only the problems of their own department. Finally, supervisor use budget as a way of expressing their own patterns of leader ship† Further, to be able to understand the level of such effect, it is essential to include specific organizational or employee factors in the analysis. For example, not enough time to educate department manager’s on the subject of budget and without a clear understanding they are allowed to operate their own department by themselves even though there is substantial training for budget is necessary, Therefore, what is needed is a planned training schedule for managers and employee (where required) for budget rather then holding inspirational presentation or seminars. â€Å"Swieringa and Moncur (1975) found that greater participation in the budget-setting process increases the quality of budgets – in other words, that there is a direct benefit of budgetary participation on subordinates behavior†. The absence of the â€Å"right† environment is the root causes of many budgeting issue specially those one relate to employee motivation. In many companies unit managers are acting like Gods because what they say is what would employees are intended to do and Even though at the end of budget preparing process â€Å"Is there any reactions?†, â€Å"is there any question or suggestion?† in most cases its seems like a bit of an empowering issue like a teacher is giving out the homework to the student. Budget matters are worst. Managers are always allowed to contribute